Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 2751–2758 | Cite as

Impact of cigarette smoking and vaping on the outcome of full-mouth ultrasonic scaling among patients with gingival inflammation: a prospective study

  • Shatha Subhi ALHarthi
  • Munerah BinShabaib
  • Zohaib AkramEmail author
  • Irfan Rahman
  • Georgios E. Romanos
  • Fawad Javed
Original Article



There are no studies that have assessed the oral soft tissue response to full-mouth ultrasonic scaling (FMUS) among cigarette-smokers (CS) (group 1), individuals vaping electronic-cigarettes (E-cigs) (group 2), and never-smokers (NS) (group 3). The aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking and vaping on periodontal tissues following FMUS.

Materials and methods

In a clinical prospective study, 89 male individuals were divided into three groups: CS (group 1), E-cig users (group 2), and NS (group 3). A questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and information regarding duration and daily frequency of CS and vaping. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (AL), and probing depth (PD) were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months after FMUS (without root surface debridement). Numbers of missing teeth (MT) were also recorded.


In groups 1, 2, and 3, 30, 28, and 31 individuals, respectively were included. In group 1, there was no statistically significant difference in mean PI and PD and numbers of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm at 6 months’ follow-up compared with baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. In groups 2 and 3, there was no significant difference in PI, BOP, and PD at 3 months’ (P > 0.05) and 6-months’ (P > 0.05) follow-up. There were no pockets with PD ≥ 4 mm at 3 and 6 months’ follow-up in groups 2 and 3. There was no difference in the numbers of MT and none of the individuals exhibited clinical AL in all groups.


Following FMUS, gingival inflammation is worse in CS compared with individuals vaping E-cigs and NS.

Clinical relevance

Periodontal inflammatory parameters are worse in cigarette-smokers than individuals vaping electronic cigarettes and never-smokers following FMUS. However, these findings should be interpreted with extreme caution as a number of factors may have influenced the present results.


Dental plaque index Dental scaling Electronic cigarette Periodontal index Periodontal pocket Smoking 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the present study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Periodontics and Community DentistryPrincess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman UniversityRiyadhKingdom of Saudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, Faculty of DentistryZiauddin UniversityKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Environmental MedicineUniversity of Rochester Medical CenterRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Oral Surgery and Implant Dentistry, Dental School, Johann Wolfgang GoetheUniversity of FrankfurtFrankfurtGermany
  5. 5.Department of Periodontology, School of Dental MedicineStony Brook UniversityStony BrookUSA
  6. 6.Department of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral HealthUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

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