Impact of cigarette smoking and vaping on the outcome of full-mouth ultrasonic scaling among patients with gingival inflammation: a prospective study
- 454 Downloads
There are no studies that have assessed the oral soft tissue response to full-mouth ultrasonic scaling (FMUS) among cigarette-smokers (CS) (group 1), individuals vaping electronic-cigarettes (E-cigs) (group 2), and never-smokers (NS) (group 3). The aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking and vaping on periodontal tissues following FMUS.
Materials and methods
In a clinical prospective study, 89 male individuals were divided into three groups: CS (group 1), E-cig users (group 2), and NS (group 3). A questionnaire was used to gather demographic data and information regarding duration and daily frequency of CS and vaping. Full-mouth plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment loss (AL), and probing depth (PD) were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months after FMUS (without root surface debridement). Numbers of missing teeth (MT) were also recorded.
In groups 1, 2, and 3, 30, 28, and 31 individuals, respectively were included. In group 1, there was no statistically significant difference in mean PI and PD and numbers of sites with PD ≥ 4 mm at 6 months’ follow-up compared with baseline and 3 months’ follow-up. In groups 2 and 3, there was no significant difference in PI, BOP, and PD at 3 months’ (P > 0.05) and 6-months’ (P > 0.05) follow-up. There were no pockets with PD ≥ 4 mm at 3 and 6 months’ follow-up in groups 2 and 3. There was no difference in the numbers of MT and none of the individuals exhibited clinical AL in all groups.
Following FMUS, gingival inflammation is worse in CS compared with individuals vaping E-cigs and NS.
Periodontal inflammatory parameters are worse in cigarette-smokers than individuals vaping electronic cigarettes and never-smokers following FMUS. However, these findings should be interpreted with extreme caution as a number of factors may have influenced the present results.
KeywordsDental plaque index Dental scaling Electronic cigarette Periodontal index Periodontal pocket Smoking
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the present study.
- 1.Geisinger ML, Geurs NC, Ogdon D, Reddy MS (2017) Targeting Underlying Biologic Mechanisms in Selecting Adjunctive Therapies to Improve Periodontal Treatment in Smokers. A Commentary. J Periodontol:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2017.170098
- 6.Alamri A, Semlali A, Jacques E, Alanazi M, Zakrzewski A, Chmielewski W, Rouabhia M (2015) Long-term exposure of human gingival fibroblasts to cigarette smoke condensate reduces cell growth by modulating Bax, caspase-3 and p53 expression. J Periodontal Res 50:423–433. https://doi.org/10.1111/jre.12223 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Katz J, Yoon TY, Mao S, Lamont RJ, Caudle RM (2007) Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products in the gingival tissue of smokers with generalized periodontal disease and after nornicotine induction in primary gingival epithelial cells. J Periodontol 78:736–741. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2007.060381 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 9.Yu S, Li H, Ma Y, Fu Y (2012) Matrix metalloproteinase-1 of gingival fibroblasts influenced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their association with receptor for AGEs and nuclear factor-kappaB in gingival connective tissue. J Periodontol 83:119–126. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2011.100754 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.Schoenborn CA, Gindi RM (2015) Electronic cigarette use among adults: United States, 2014. NCHS Data Brief:1–8Google Scholar
- 16.Ayers JW, Leas EC, Allem JP, Benton A, Dredze M, Althouse BM, Cruz TB, Unger JB (2017) Why do people use electronic nicotine delivery systems (electronic cigarettes)? A content analysis of Twitter, 2012-2015. PLoS One 12:e0170702. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170702 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 18.Lerner CA, Rutagarama P, Ahmad T, Sundar IK, Elder A, Rahman I (2016) Electronic cigarette aerosols and copper nanoparticles induce mitochondrial stress and promote DNA fragmentation in lung fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 477:620–625. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.06.109 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 19.Lerner CA, Sundar IK, Watson RM, Elder A, Jones R, Done D, Kurtzman R, Ossip DJ, Robinson R, McIntosh S, Rahman I (2015) Environmental health hazards of e-cigarettes and their components: oxidants and copper in e-cigarette aerosols. Environ Pollut 198:100–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.033 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 20.Javed F, Abduljabbar T, Vohra F, Malmstrom H, Rahman I, Romanos GE (2017) Comparison of periodontal parameters and self-perceived oral symptoms among cigarette-smokers, individuals vaping electronic-cigarettes and never-smokers: a pilot study. J Periodontol:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2017.170197
- 26.Qadri T, Javed F, Poddani P, Tuner J, Gustafsson A (2011) Long-term effects of a single application of a water-cooled pulsed Nd:YAG laser in supplement to scaling and root planing in patients with periodontal inflammation. Lasers Med Sci 26:763–766. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-010-0807-8 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 36.Javed F, Al-Kheraif AA, Al Amri MD, Alshehri M, Vohra F, Al-Askar M, Malmstrom H, Romanos GE (2015) Periodontal status and whole salivary cytokine profile among smokers and never-smokers with and without prediabetes. J Periodontol 86:890–898. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2015.140593 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 41.Grudianov AI, Kemulariia IV (2010) Laser doppler estimation of the influence of tobacco-smoking on the blood microcirculation in the periodont at the patients with the different stages of periodontal diseases. Stomatologiia (Mosk) 89:10–14Google Scholar