Antimicrobial activity of Psidium cattleianum associated with calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans: an in vitro study
Evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity of Psidium cattleianum leaf extracts combined with calcium hydroxide against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans biofilm.
Materials and methods
Dentin specimens obtained from extracted bovine incisors were infected during 14 days with E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and C. albicans ATCC 10231. The specimens were filled with calcium hydroxide pastes prepared with the following vehicles: Psidium cattleianum ethanolic, Psidium cattleianum propylene glycolic, distilled water, and saline as control. After 24 h, 3, 7, and 14 days, the canals were irrigated with sterile saline and dried. Dentin samples were collected from the canals with burs of increasing diameters. To determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU), samples were inoculated onto BHI agar supplemented with yeast extract (0.5%), at 37 °C, for 48 h, in CO2 enriched atmosphere. Comparisons among the groups for the variation factors were performed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test.
Ethanolic and propylene glycolic extracts showed significantly higher antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis (p < 0.01) when compared with distilled water. The ethanolic extract exhibited in 24 h the same antibacterial activity that propylene glycolic extract and distilled water after 7 and 14 days. For C. albicans, all were effective in reducing the number of CFU at all periods.
The P. cattleianum ethanolic extract presented the fastest and highest antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, significantly reducing the microbial load in 24 h. All medications were effective against C. albicans.
The antibacterial potential of P. cattleianum and its biological compatibility associated with calcium hydroxide indicate promising applications in the field of dentistry.
KeywordsCalcium hydroxide Candida albicans Enterococcus faecalis Plant extracts
This research was suported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)—Brazil.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
- 5.Cogulu D, Uzel A, Oncag O, Eronat C (2008) PCR-based identification of selected pathogens associated with endodontic infections in deciduous and permanent teeth. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 106(3):443–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.03.004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Sjogren U, Figdor D, Spangberg L, Sundqvist G (1991) The antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as a short-term intracanal dressing. Int Endod J 24(3):119–125. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.1991.tb00117.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Orstavik D, Haapasalo M (1990) Disinfection by endodontic irrigants and dressings of experimentally infected dentinl tubules. Endod Dent Traumatol 6(4):142–149. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1990.tb00409.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.George S, Kishen A, Song KP (2005) The role of environmental changes on monospecies biofilm formation on root canal wall by Enterococcus faecalis. J Endod 31(12):867–872. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.don.0000164855.98346.fc PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 17.Paikkatt JV, Sreedharan S, Philomina B, Kannan VP, Santhakumar M, Kumar TVA (2017) Eficacy of various intracanal medicaments in human primary teeth with necrotic pulp against Candida biofillms: an in vivo study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 10(1):45–48. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10005-1406 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Waltimo TM, Sirén EK, Torkko HL, Olsen I, Haapasalo MP (1997) Fungi in therapy-resistant apical periodontitis. Int Endod J 30(2):96–101. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.1997.tb00681.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 26.Salineiro FCS, Bianco KG, Gaetti Jardim-Júnior E (2009) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of plant extracts from the Brazilian savannah on Streptococcus mutans. J Appl Oral Sci; n. Esp.: 485 abstract 307Google Scholar
- 27.Sangalli J, Dezan E Jr, Gaetti-Jardim E Jr (2009) Antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts from the Brazilian savanna on microbial biofilms. Braz Oral Res 23(Supplement 1):294 Abstract PNe073Google Scholar
- 30.Ruviére DB, Machado AC, Novais RZ, Gaetti Jardim-Junior E, Dezan Jr E (2009) Evaluation of the tissue response to inactivated microorganisms associated with aqueous and hydroalcoholic araça (Psidium cattleianum) solutions. J Appl Oral Sci; n. Esp. 432 abstract 019Google Scholar
- 36.Miranda TT, Vianna CR, Rodrigues L, Rosa CA, Corrêa A Jr (2015) Differential proteinase patterns among Candida albicans strains isolated from root canal and lingual dorsum: possible roles in periapical disease. J Endod 41(6):841–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2015.01.012 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Foreman PC, Barnes IE (1990) A review of calcium hydroxide. Int Endod J 23(6):283–297. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2591.1990.tb00108.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 40.Basrani B, Tjarderhanne L, Santos M, Pascon E, Grad H, Lawrence HP, Friedman S (2003) Efficacy of chlorhexidine and calcium hydroxide-containing medicaments against enterococcus faecalis in vitro. Oral Med Oral Surg Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 96(5):618–624. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1079-2104(03)00166-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 45.Dezan-Junior E, Sangalli J, Gomes-Filho JE, Gaetti-Jardim E Jr (2010) Psidium cattleianum plus Ca(OH)2 antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis. IADR J Dent Res 89:15–16 Special Issue BGoogle Scholar
- 48.Bystrom A, Claesson R, Sundqvist G (1985) The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals. Endod Dent Traumatol 1(5):170–175. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.1985.tb00652.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 49.National Genetic Resources Program, United States Department of Agriculture (2005) Agricultural research service: phytochemical and ethnobotanical databases (online database). Beltsville, National Germplasm Resources LaboratoryGoogle Scholar