Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 1601–1607 | Cite as

Color adjustment potential of resin composites

  • Branka Trifkovic
  • John M. Powers
  • Rade D. Paravina
Original Article



The purpose of this study was to evaluate color adjustment potential (CAP) of resin composites.

Materials and methods

Two shades of each of eight commercial resin composites and one control shade were evaluated. Visual (color competent observers, controlled conditions) and instrumental color evaluations (spectroradiometer, spectrophotometer) were performed. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Fisher’s PLSD intervals for comparison of means, and Spearman’s rank order correlation.


Instrumental color adjustment potential (CAP-I) ranged from − 0.51 to 0.74, and corresponding Fisher’s PLSD intervals were 0.1 and 0.05, respectively (p < 0.0001, power 1.0). Visual color adjustment potential (CAP-V) ranged from 0.10 to 0.78, and corresponding Fisher’s PLSD intervals were 0.2 and 0.1, respectively (p < 0.0001, power 1.0). The greatest overall color shifting between test shades in isolation and the same shades surrounded by control shade were recorded for HRi ENA enamel, followed by Clearfil Majesty ES2. The highest visual CAP (blending) was recorded for Herculite Ultra, HRi ENA enamel, and Clearfil Majesty ES2.


Within the limitation of the study, it was found that color adjustment potential (CAP) was composite and shade-dependent. Positive CAP was recorded both instrumentally and visually for majority of composites and shades. Overall, the measured color difference reduction associated with positive CAP was 31%, while the average visual CAP was 43%.

Clinical relevance

Resin composites with pronounced color adjustment potential interact with surrounding dental restorations. Introduced CAP-V and CAP-I were indirect measurements of blending (optical illusion).


Color adjustment potential Resin composite Color Blending Spectroradiometry Phychophysics 



Materials were donated by manufacturers.


The work was supported by a grant from the American Dental Association, Chicago, Illinois.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and informed consent

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    Bergen SF (1985) Color in esthetics. NY state. Dent J 51:470–471Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Swift EJ, Hammel SA, Lund PS (1994) Colorimetric evaluation of Vita shade resin composites. Int J Prosthodont 7:356–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pridmore RW (2004) Bezold-Brücke effect exists in related and unrelated colors and resembles the Abney effect. Col Res Appl 29:241–246. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shinoda H, Ikeda M (2004) Color assimilation on grating affected by its apparent stripe width. Col Res Appl 29:187–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Paravina RD, Westland S, Imai FH, Kimura M, Powers JM (2006) Evaluation of blending effect of composites related to restoration size. Dent Mater 22:299–307. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Paravina RD, Westland S, Kimura M, Powers JM, Imai FH (2006) Color interaction of dental materials: blending effect of layered composites. Dent Mater 22:903–908. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paravina RD, Westland S, Johnston WM, Powers JM (2008) Color adjustment potential of resin composites. J Dent Res 87:499–503. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    International Organization for Standardization (2016) ISO/TR 28642 dentistry—guidance on color measurement. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Judd DB, Wyszecki G (1975) Color in business, science and industry. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    International Organization for Standardization (2008) ISO 11664–4:2008(E)/CIE S 014–4/E:2007CIE Colorimetry - part 4. L*a*b* Colour Space, ISO, Geneva, p 1976Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paravina RD et al (2014) Color difference thresholds in dentistry. J Esthet Restor Dent 27:S1–S9. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnston WM (2014) Review of translucency determinations and applications to dental materials. J Esthet Restor Dent 26:217–223. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chu SJ, Trushkowsky RD, Paravina RD (2010) Dental color matching instruments and systems. Review of clinical and research aspects. J Dent 38:S2–S16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall NR, Kafalias MC (1991) Composite colour matching: the development and evaluation of a restorative colour matching system. Aust Prosthodont J 5:47–52PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chu SJ, Paravina RD, Sailer I, Meleszko AJ (2017) Color in dentistry—a clinical guide to predictable esthetics color training in dentistry. Quintessence Publishing, Hanover ParkGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Paravina RD, Majkic G, Imai FH (2007) Powers JM (2007) optimization of tooth color and shade guide design. J Prosthodont 16:269–276. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Branka Trifkovic
    • 1
  • John M. Powers
    • 2
  • Rade D. Paravina
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Prosthodontics, School of DentistryUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Department of Restorative Dentistry and Prosthodontics and Houston Center for Biomaterials and BiomimeticsUniversity of Texas School of Dentistry at HoustonHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations