Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 2619–2627 | Cite as

Injectable platelet rich fibrin (i-PRF): opportunities in regenerative dentistry?

  • Richard J. MironEmail author
  • Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi
  • Maria Hernandez
  • Umadevi Kandalam
  • Yufeng Zhang
  • Shahram Ghanaati
  • Joseph Choukroun
Original Article



Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized in regenerative dentistry as a supra-physiological concentrate of autologous growth factors capable of stimulating tissue regeneration. Despite this, concerns have been expressed regarding the use of anti-coagulants, agents known to inhibit wound healing. In this study, a liquid formulation of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) termed injectable-PRF (i-PRF) without the use of anti-coagulants was investigated.

Materials and methods

Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60G) for 3 min) were compared for growth factor release up to 10 days (8 donor samples). Furthermore, fibroblast biocompatibility at 24 h (live/dead assay); migration at 24 h; proliferation at 1, 3, and 5 days, and expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and collagen1 at 3 and 7 days were investigated.


Growth factor release demonstrated that in general PRP had higher early release of growth factors whereas i-PRF showed significantly higher levels of total long-term release of PDGF-AA, PDGF-AB, EGF, and IGF-1 after 10 days. PRP showed higher levels of TGF-β1 and VEGF at 10 days. While both formulations exhibited high biocompatibility and higher fibroblast migration and proliferation when compared to control tissue-culture plastic, i-PRF induced significantly highest migration whereas PRP demonstrated significantly highest cellular proliferation. Furthermore, i-PRF showed significantly highest mRNA levels of TGF-β at 7 days, PDGF at 3 days, and collagen1 expression at both 3 and 7 days when compared to PRP.


i-PRF demonstrated the ability to release higher concentrations of various growth factors and induced higher fibroblast migration and expression of PDGF, TGF-β, and collagen1. Future animal research is now necessary to further validate the use of i-PRF as a bioactive agent capable of stimulating tissue regeneration.

Clinical relevance

The findings from the present study demonstrate that a potent formulation of liquid platelet concentrates could be obtained without use of anti-coagulants.


Fibrin Blood platelets Regeneration Wound healing Fibroblasts Platelet rich fibrin 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Joseph Choukroun is the founder of Process of PRF company and the developer and inventor of the PRF protocol in Nice, France. All other authors declare no conflict of interests.


This work was fully funded by the Cell Biology Laboratory at Nova Southeastern University, College of Dental Medicine.

Ethical approval

No ethical approval was required for this study as human samples were not identified in this study.

Informed consent

For this type of study, informed consent was not required as no human or animal subjects were utilized.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Miron
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • Maria Hernandez
    • 1
  • Umadevi Kandalam
    • 6
  • Yufeng Zhang
    • 7
  • Shahram Ghanaati
    • 8
  • Joseph Choukroun
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Periodontology, College of Dental MedicineNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  2. 2.Cell Therapy Institute, Center for Collaborative ResearchNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  3. 3.Department of Periodontics and Oral MedicineUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  5. 5.Department of Oral Surgery, Institute of Biomedical SciencesTokushima University Graduate SchoolTokushimaJapan
  6. 6.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dental MedicineNova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA
  7. 7.Department of Oral ImplantologyUniversity of WuhanWuhanChina
  8. 8.FORM, Frankfurt Oral Regenerative Medicine, Clinic for Maxillofacial and Plastic SurgeryJohann Wolfgang Goethe UniversityFrankfurt Am MainGermany
  9. 9.Pain ClinicNiceFrance

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