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Prevalence of otologic signs and symptoms in adult patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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This study aims to estimate the prevalence of otologic signs and symptoms in adult patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD).

Material and methods

Search strategies were developed for each of the following databases: PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, Proquest, LIVIVO, and Google Scholar and OpenGrey was used to assess the grey literature. It was included in this review only observational studies using either research diagnostic criteria (RDC)/TMD or DC/TMD indexes were selected. The Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data from the Joanna Briggs Institute was used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. A proportion random effects meta-analysis was conducted within the eight included studies.


Eight studies met the eligibility criteria and were selected. All of the included studies used the RDC/TMD and report associated otologic signs and symptoms. The studies were clustered into groups based on prevalence for each individual sign or symptom. The most prevalent otologic symptom associated with TMD was ear fullness (74.8 % standard deviation (SD), 43.02 to 96.25 %; n = 50), followed by otalgia (55.1 % SD, 31.78 to 77.30; n = 386), tinnitus (52.1 % SD, 38.43 to 65.74; n = 1293), vertigo (40.8 % SD, 11.29 to 74.72; n = 374), and hearing loss (38.9 % SD, 2.83 to 85.46; n = 744).


The prevalence of otologic signs and symptoms in adult patients with TMD is high. The most prevalent otologic symptom in patient adults with TMD is ear fullness.

Clinical relevance

This study intends to provide understanding over the prevalence of otologic signs and symptoms in TMD cases in adults.

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Correspondence to Isabela Porto De Toledo.

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Author Isabela Porto de Toledo declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Fabiane M. Stefani declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author André L. Porporatti declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Luis A. Mezzomo declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Marco A. Peres declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Carlos Flores-Mir declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Graziela De Luca Canto declares that she has no conflict of interest.


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Porto De Toledo, I., Stefani, F.M., Porporatti, A.L. et al. Prevalence of otologic signs and symptoms in adult patients with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Invest 21, 597–605 (2017).

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