Streptococcus mitis and Gemella haemolysans were simultaneously found in atherosclerotic and oral plaques of elderly without periodontitis—a pilot study

Abstract

Objectives

Local infections may contribute to the initiation and progression of several clinical diseases in humans. Atherosclerotic plaques of subjects suffering from periodontitis are colonized by periopathogens; however, the presence of bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques in patients without severe forms of periodontitis is of high relevance for the general population.

Materials and methods

Patients who were electively treated for atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid artery and without clinical signs of periodontitis were eligible for the study. Oral and atherosclerotic plaques were sampled, processed, and analyzed for their microbial composition by 454-sequencing.

Results

Seventeen patients were included in the analyses, and 76 % of all atherosclerotic plaque specimens were positive for bacterial DNA. In the oral plaques, 76,532 sequences were identified representing 1 phylum, 17 classes, 112 families, and 263 genera. In atherosclerotic plaques, 6112 sequences representing 1 phylum, 4 classes, 8 families, and 36 genera were found. The bacterial DNAs of the species Gemella haemolysans and Streptococcus mitis were simultaneously found in atherosclerotic as well as oral plaque samples of 3 patients.

Conclusions

These results indicated that in subjects without periodontitis, the transmission of oral bacteria to atherosclerotic plaques of the carotid artery is a feasible event.

Clinical relevance

The prevention of transient bacteremia from the oral cavity requires high levels of oral health.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Hansson GK, Libby P, Schonbeck U, Yan ZQ (2002) Innate and adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Circ Res 91:281–291

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Libby P, Ridker PM, Maseri A (2002) Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation 105:1135–1143

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kiechl S, Egger G, Mayr M, Wiedermann CJ, Bonora E, Oberhollenzer F, Muggeo M, Xu Q, Wick G, Poewe W, Willeit J (2001) Chronic infections and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis: prospective results from a large population study. Circulation 103:1064–1070

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Schenkein HA, Loos BG (2013) Inflammatory mechanisms linking periodontal diseases to cardiovascular diseases. J Periodontol 84:S51–S69

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Beck J, Garcia R, Heiss G, Vokonas PS, Offenbacher S (1996) Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol 67:1123–1137

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Beck JD, Offenbacher S (2005) Systemic effects of periodontitis: epidemiology of periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol 76:2089–2100

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Gaetti-Jardim M, Marcelino SL, Feitosa AC, Romito GA, Avila-Campos MJ (2009) Quantitative detection of periodontopathic bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques from coronary arteries. J Med Microbiol 58:1568–1575

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Nakano K, Inaba H, Nomura R, Nemoto H, Takeda M, Yoshioka H, Matsue H, Takahashi T, Taniguchi K, Amano A, Ooshima T (2006) Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. J Clin Microbiol 44:3313–3317

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Aimetti M, Romano F, Nessi F (2007) Microbiologic analysis of periodontal pockets and carotid atheromatous plaques in advanced chronic periodontitis patients. J Periodontol 78:1718–1723

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ericsson JS, Abrahamsson KH, Ostberg AL, Hellstrom MK, Jonsson K, Wennstrom JL (2009) Periodontal health status in Swedish adolescents: an epidemiological, cross-sectional study. Swed Dent J 33:131–139

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Li Y, Lee S, Hujoel P, Su M, Zhang W, Kim J, Zhang YP, DeVizio W (2010) Prevalence and severity of gingivitis in American adults. Am J Dent 23:9–13

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Guntheroth WG (1984) How important are dental procedures as a cause of infective endocarditis? Am J Cardiol 54:797–801

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Parameter on chronic periodontitis with slight to moderate loss of periodontal support. American Academy of Periodontology (2000) J Periodontol 71:853–855

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    American Academy of Periodontology–Research, Science, and Therapy Committee, American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (2005) Treatment of plaque-induced gingivitis, chronic periodontitis, and other clinical conditions. Pediatr Dent 27:202–211

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Bisdas T, Pichlmaier M, Bisdas S, Haverich A, Teebken OE (2010) Early neurologic outcome after bovine pericardium versus venous patch angioplasty in 599 patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Vascular 18:147–153

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kunin V, Hugenholtz P (2010) Pyrotagger: a fast, accurate pipeline for analysis of rRNA amplicon pyrosequence data. Open J 1

  17. 17.

    Haraszthy VI, Zambon JJ, Trevisan M, Zeid M, Genco RJ (2000) Identification of periodontal pathogens in atheromatous plaques. J Periodontol 71:1554–1560

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Zaremba M, Gorska R, Suwalski P, Kowalski J (2007) Evaluation of the incidence of periodontitis-associated bacteria in the atherosclerotic plaque of coronary blood vessels. J Periodontol 78:322–327

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lehtiniemi J, Karhunen PJ, Goebeler S, Nikkari S, Nikkari ST (2005) Identification of different bacterial DNAs in human coronary arteries. Eur J Clin Investig 35:13–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Ott SJ, El Mokhtari NE, Musfeldt M, Hellmig S, Freitag S, Rehman A, Kuhbacher T, Nikolaus S, Namsolleck P, Blaut M, Hampe J, Sahly H, Reinecke A, Haake N, Gunther R, Kruger D, Lins M, Herrmann G, Folsch UR, Simon R, Schreiber S (2006) Detection of diverse bacterial signatures in atherosclerotic lesions of patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 113:929–937

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Nakano K, Nemoto H, Nomura R, Inaba H, Yoshioka H, Taniguchi K, Amano A, Ooshima T (2009) Detection of oral bacteria in cardiovascular specimens. Oral Microbiol Immunol 24:64–68

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Eberhard J, Grote K, Luchtefeld M, Heuer W, Schuett H, Divchev D, Scherer R, Schmitz-Streit R, Langfeldt D, Stumpp N, Staufenbiel I, Schieffer B, Stiesch M (2013) Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study. PLoS One 8:e55265

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH, Lakshmanan A, Wade WG (2010) The human oral microbiome. J Bacteriol 192:5002–5017

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Gatibelza ME, Laroye B, Lombard J, Mameli A, Thomas E (2009) Management of a ruptured infected abdominal aortic aneurysm and a spondylodiscitis due to Gemella haemolysans. Ann Vasc Surg 23:536.e13–536.e17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Avgoustidis N, Bourantas CV, Anastasiadis GP, Sipsas N, Pikazis D (2011) Endocarditis due to Gemella haemolysans in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Heart Valve Dis 20:107–109

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Huang IF, Chiou CC, Liu YC, Hsieh KS (2002) Endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus mitis in a 12-year-old boy. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 35:129–132

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Alkhatib B, Schoch PE, Cunha BA (2012) Viridans streptococcal (Streptococcus mitis) biosynthetic aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) complicated by complete heart block and paravalvular abscess. Heart Lung 41:610–612

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Stinson MW, Alder S, Kumar S (2003) Invasion and killing of human endothelial cells by viridans group streptococci. Infect Immun 71:2365–2372

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. Eberhard.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

The work was supported by the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomedical Materials Science and the Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Germany.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Hannover Medical School, Germany.

Informed consent

All patients signed a formal informed consent.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Eberhard, J., Stumpp, N., Winkel, A. et al. Streptococcus mitis and Gemella haemolysans were simultaneously found in atherosclerotic and oral plaques of elderly without periodontitis—a pilot study. Clin Oral Invest 21, 447–452 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-016-1811-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Periodontitis
  • Atherosclerotic plaques
  • Oral plaques