Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 903–914

Efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy in the management of chronic periodontitis among obese and non-obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Zohaib Akram
  • Syarida Hasnur Safii
  • Rathna Devi Vaithilingam
  • Nor Adinar Baharuddin
  • Fawad Javed
  • Fahim Vohra



There is a controversy over the influence of obesity on the periodontal treatment outcome in patients with chronic periodontitis (CP). The aim of the present systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT) in the management of CP among obese and non-obese patients.

Materials and methods

The addressed focused question was “What is the efficacy, of NSPT with respect to clinical, radiographic, biochemical, microbiological, and patient-centered outcomes in obese as compared to non-obese chronic periodontitis patients?” Databases were searched from 1977 up to and including December 2014 using relevant key indexing terms. Unpublished data, experimental studies, letters to the editor, review articles, case reports, and commentaries were excluded. Meta-analysis of three studies was performed.


Five clinical studies were included. The total number of patients ranged between 30 and 260 individuals. The mean age of patients was between 42.5 and 48.8 years. In three studies, the clinical periodontal parameters (plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), periodontal pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment loss (CAL)) in obese and non-obese patients following NSPT was comparable. Meta-analysis of PPD and CAL among obese and non-obese subjects showed comparable outcomes (PPD P = 0.91, I2 67.36 %; CAL P = 0.87, I2 77.16 %). However, in three studies, NSPT resulted in a significantly better clinical periodontal outcome among non-obese subjects than obese subjects. The difference in the levels of serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, leptin, adiponectin, and CRP) among obese and non-obese patients following treatment for CP was inconsistent.


It remains unclear whether NSPT has a significantly higher impact on the clinical periodontal outcomes in obese patients than in non-obese patients with chronic periodontitis, given that the number of selected studies was relatively low and the reported findings were inconsistent.

Clinical relevance

Although the effect of obesity on the outcome of NSPT still remains unclear, nevertheless clinicians are prompted to manage obesity prior to and during periodontal treatment


Obese Overweight Periodontitis Cytokines Inflammatory markers Periodontal therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zohaib Akram
    • 1
    • 2
  • Syarida Hasnur Safii
    • 1
  • Rathna Devi Vaithilingam
    • 1
  • Nor Adinar Baharuddin
    • 1
  • Fawad Javed
    • 3
  • Fahim Vohra
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Restorative DentistryUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Periodontology, Faculty of DentistryZiauddin UniversityKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Division of General Dentistry, Eastman Institute for Oral HealthUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA
  4. 4.Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of DentistryKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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