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The impact of the new scene drug “crystal meth” on oral health: a case–control study

Abstract

Objective

The use of methamphetamine (MA), a highly addictive stimulant, is rapidly increasing, with MA being widely abused as the scene drug “Crystal Meth” (CM). CM has been associated with severe oral health effects, resulting in so-called “Meth mouth”. This term appeared for the first time in 2005 in the literature and describes the final complex of symptoms including rampant caries, periodontal diseases and excessive tooth wear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic CM abuse on teeth and intraoral tissue with respect to potential symptoms of Meth mouth.

Materials and methods

In cooperation with two centres for addiction medicine, we performed clinical intraoral investigations in 100 chronic CM users and 100 matched-pair controls. We undertook a caries and periodontal examination by using the clinical parameters DMF-T/DMF-S, bleeding on probing index (BOP) and periodontal screening index (PSI) and tested individual oral hygiene by using approximal space plaque index (API). All clinical data were analysed by the t test for independent samples.

Results

We found significantly larger numbers of caries (p < 0.001) and higher levels of gingival bleeding (p < 0.001) and periodontal disease (p < 0.001) among CM users. Oral hygiene was significantly lower in CM users (p < 0.024).

Conclusion

Chronic CM use can lead to extensive potential damage within the intraoral cavity. When CM is used over a long period of time and in the absence of treatment, clinical symptoms in terms of Meth mouth syndrome cannot be excluded.

Clinical relevance

Based on our results, we recommend a specific prevention and therapeutic concept including educational campaigns for MA users and specialized dental care for CM patients.

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Acknowledgments

This study was funded by internal funding sources of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Munich University of Technology. It was also supported by the funding provided by the Koinor Horst Mueller Foundation.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Correspondence to Niklas Rommel.

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Rommel, N., Rohleder, N.H., Wagenpfeil, S. et al. The impact of the new scene drug “crystal meth” on oral health: a case–control study. Clin Oral Invest 20, 469–475 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-015-1527-z

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Keywords

  • Crystal methamphetamine
  • Meth mouth
  • Caries
  • Periodontal diseases
  • Oral hygiene
  • Prevalence study