Advertisement

Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 18, Issue 8, pp 2045–2053 | Cite as

Analysis of tooth brushing cycles

  • Yuki Tosaka
  • Kuniko Nakakura-OhshimaEmail author
  • Nozomi Murakami
  • Rikako Ishii
  • Issei Saitoh
  • Yoko Iwase
  • Akihiro Yoshihara
  • Akitsugu Ohuchi
  • Haruaki Hayasaki
Original Article

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an analysis of tooth brushing cycles using a system that measures tooth brushing motion and brushing force with an accelerometer and strain tension gage attached to a toothbrush.

Background

Mechanical plaque removal with a manual toothbrush remains the primary method of maintaining good oral hygiene for the majority of the population. Because toothbrush motion has not been fully understood, it should be clarified by analysis of tooth brushing cycles.

Methods

Twenty healthy female dental hygienists participated in this study. Their tooth brushing motions were measured and analyzed using an American Dental Association-approved manual toothbrush to which a three-dimensional (3-D) accelerometer and strain tension gage were attached. 3-D motion and brushing force on the labial surface of the mandibular right central incisor and the lingual surface of the mandibular left first molar were measured, analyzed, and compared. Multilevel linear model analysis was applied to estimate variables and compare motion and forces related to the two tooth surfaces.

Results

The analysis of tooth brushing cycles was feasible, and significant differences were detected for durations and 3-D ranges of toothbrush motion as well as brushing force between the two tooth surfaces.

Conclusion

The analysis used in this study demonstrated an ability to detect characteristics of tooth brushing motion, showing tooth brushing motion to change depending on the brushed location. These results also suggest that more detailed instructions might be required according to patient’s oral condition.

Keywords

Toothbrush Motion Cycle Duration Acceleration Force 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Yankell SL, Shi X, Emling RC (2003) Laboratory evaluations of two toothbrushes for removal of artificial plaque above, around and below the gingival margin. J Clin Dent 14(1):19–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Creeth JE, Gallagher A, Sowinski J, Bowman J, Barrett K, Lowe S, Patel K, Bosma ML (2009) The effect of brushing time and dentifrice on dental plaque removal in vivo. J Dent Hyg : JDH/Am Dent Hygienists’ Assoc 83(3):111–116Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weinstein P, Milgrom P, Melnick S, Beach B, Spadafora A (1989) How effective is oral hygiene instruction? Results after 6 and 24 weeks. J Public Health Dent 49(1):32–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    van der Weijden GA, Hioe KP (2005) A systematic review of the effectiveness of self-performed mechanical plaque removal in adults with gingivitis using a manual toothbrush. J Clin Periodontol 32(Suppl 6):214–228. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00795.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schlueter N, Klimek J, Saleschke G, Ganss C (2010) Adoption of a toothbrushing technique: a controlled, randomised clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig 14(1):99–106. doi: 10.1007/s00784-009-0269-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee YC, Chen YL (2012) Optimal combination of auxiliary device size and its location on chopsticks for food-gripping performances. Percept Mot Skills 115(1):187–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gorniak SL, Duarte M, Latash ML (2008) Do synergies improve accuracy? A study of speed-accuracy trade-offs during finger force production. Mot Control 12(2):151–172Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith M, Sandberg AD, Larsson M (2009) Reading and spelling in children with severe speech and physical impairments: a comparative study. Int J Lang Commun Disord 44(6):864–882. doi: 10.1080/13682820802389873 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wells GD, Elmi M, Thomas S (2009) Physiological correlates of golf performance. J Strength Cond Res 23(3):741–750. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07970 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sim M, Kim JU (2010) Differences between experts and novices in kinematics and accuracy of golf putting. Hum Mov Sci 29(6):932–946. doi: 10.1016/j.humov.2010.07.014 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim KS, Yoon TH, Lee JW, Kim DJ (2009) Interactive toothbrushing education by a smart toothbrush system via 3D visualization. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 96(2):125–132. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2009.04.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graetz C, Bielfeldt J, Wolff L, Springer C, Fawzy El-Sayed KM, Salzer S, Badri-Hoher S, Dorfer CE (2012) Tooth brushing education via a smart software visualization system. J Periodontol 84(2):186–195. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110675 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Buschang PH, Hayasaki H, Throckmorton GS (2000) Quantification of human chewing-cycle kinematics. Arch Oral Biol 45(6):461–474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wintergerst AM, Buschang PH, Throckmorton GS (2004) Reducing within-subject variation in chewing cycle kinematics—a statistical approach. Arch Oral Biol 49(12):991–1000. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2004.07.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Strenio JF, Weisberg HI, Bryk AS (1983) Empirical Bayes estimation of individual growth-curve parameters and their relationship to covariates. Biometrics 39(1):71–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hayasaki H, Sawami T, Saitoh I, Nakata S, Yamasaki Y, Nakata M (2002) Length of the occlusal glide at the lower incisal point during chewing. J Oral Rehabil 29(11):1120–1125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Saitoh I, Yamada C, Hayasaki H, Maruyama T, Iwase Y, Yamasaki Y (2010) Is the reverse cycle during chewing abnormal in children with primary dentition? J Oral Rehabil 37(1):26–33. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2009.02006.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ganss C, Hardt M, Blazek D, Klimek J, Schlueter N (2009) Effects of toothbrushing force on the mineral content and demineralized organic matrix of eroded dentine. Eur J Oral Sci 117(3):255–260. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2009.00617.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yankell SL, Emling RC (1994) Laboratory interproximal access efficacy comparison of bi-level and flat bristled toothbrushes. J Clin Dent 4(4):128–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Volpenhein DW, Handel SE, Hughes TJ, Wild J (1996) A comparative evaluation of the in vitro penetration performance of the improved Crest complete toothbrush versus the Current Crest complete toothbrush, the Colgate Precision toothbrush and the Oral-B P40 toothbrush. J Clin Dent 7(1):21–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wiegand A, Burkhard JP, Eggmann F, Attin T (2012) Brushing force of manual and sonic toothbrushes affects dental hard tissue abrasion. Clin Oral Investig 17(3):815–822. doi: 10.1007/s00784-012-0788-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Reijerse E, Snoek CM, van der Velden U (1996) Toothbrushing force in relation to plaque removal. J Clin Periodontol 23(8):724–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boyd RL, McLey L, Zahradnik R (1997) Clinical and laboratory evaluation of powered electric toothbrushes: in vivo determination of average force for use of manual and powered toothbrushes. J Clin Dent 8(3 Spec No):72–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van der Weijden GA, Timmerman MF, Danser MM, Van der Velden U (1998) Relationship between the plaque removal efficacy of a manual toothbrush and brushing force. J Clin Periodontol 25(5):413–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okamoto T, Tsuboi S, Fukuta O, Nakagak IH, Tsuchiya T (2007) Comparison of pressure of assisted toothbrushing with assistant’s toothbrushing. J Jpn Soc Disabil Oral Health 22:83–88Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saxer UP, Yankell SL (1997) Impact of improved toothbrushes on dental diseases. I Quintessence Int 28(8):513–525Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hotta M, Yoshida T, Sekine I, Imada S, Sano A (1997) Evaluation of tapered-end toothbrushes regarding subgingival access efficacy. J Clin Dent 8(6):156–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macgregor ID, Rugg-Gunn AJ (1985) Toothbrushing duration in 60 uninstructed young adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 13(3):121–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Poyato-Ferrera M, Segura-Egea JJ, Bullon-Fernandez P (2003) Comparison of modified Bass technique with normal toothbrushing practices for efficacy in supragingival plaque removal. Int J Dent Hyg 1(2):110–114. doi: 10.1034/j.1601-5037.2003.00018.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kuitunen S, Komi PV, Kyrolainen H (2002) Knee and ankle joint stiffness in sprint running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34(1):166–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC (2012) Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science 337(6101):1492–1495. doi: 10.1126/science.1226918 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lesser LI, Cohen DA, Brook RH (2012) Changing eating habits for the medical profession. JAMA 308(10):983–984. doi: 10.1001/2012.jama.10427 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pakpour AH, Sniehotta FF (2012) Perceived behavioural control and coping planning predict dental brushing behaviour among Iranian adolescents. J Clin Periodontol 39(2):132–137. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01826.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dorri M, Sheiham A, Watt RG (2010) Modelling the factors influencing general and oral hygiene behaviours in adolescents. Int J Paediatr Dent 20(4):261–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-263X.2010.01048.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yeung CA (2010) Motivational interviewing in an oral health promotion programme. Evid Based Dent 11(1):14–15. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6400703 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Berlin-Broner Y, Levin L, Ashkenazi M (2012) Awareness of orthodontists regarding oral hygiene performance during active orthodontic treatment. Eur J Paediatr Dent 13(3):187–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Atassi F, Awartani F (2010) Oral hygiene status among orthodontic patients. J Contemp Dent Pract 11(4):E025–E032PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuki Tosaka
    • 1
  • Kuniko Nakakura-Ohshima
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nozomi Murakami
    • 2
  • Rikako Ishii
    • 3
  • Issei Saitoh
    • 2
  • Yoko Iwase
    • 2
  • Akihiro Yoshihara
    • 1
  • Akitsugu Ohuchi
    • 1
  • Haruaki Hayasaki
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Oral Health and Welfare, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigata UniversityChuo-kuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental SciencesNiigata UniversityChuo-kuJapan
  3. 3.Tokyo Metropolitan Center for Oral Health of Persons with DisabilitiesShinjyuku-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations