Children's toothbrush contamination in day-care centers: how to solve this problem?
- 433 Downloads
To evaluate the contamination level of toothbrushes by mutans streptococci (MS) and the efficacy of antimicrobial solutions: cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05 % (CPC; Cepacol™) and chlorhexidine 0.12 % (CHX; Periogard™), to disinfect toothbrushes of preschool-aged children in day-care centers.
Material and methods
Fifty-two children were randomly divided into three groups, and a three-stage changeover system was used with a 1-week interval between each stage. Solutions were used by a different group of children in each stage. Children were submitted to a 1 minute brushing without dentifrice, performed by a professional calibrated, followed by random spraying over the bristles of brushes. Process and microbiological analysis were realized, and four brushes of each group were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Friedman's test at 5 % significance level revealed difference between the antimicrobial solutions (p < 0.01). MS were detected in 100 % cases of toothbrushes sprayed with sterile tap water (control) and in 66.7 % after spraying with CPC, but it was not detected formation of colonies/biofilms after spraying with CHX. The data were confirmed by SEM.
The toothbrushes were contaminated with MS after a single brushing.
Although CPC has shown good results in comparison with the control, CHX showed greater efficacy in disinfection bristles of toothbrushes.
KeywordsToothbrushes Disinfection Day-care centers Streptococcus mutans
The authors are indebted to Dr. Izabel Yoko Ito (in memoriam) of Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Bromatology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto and Dr. Marcos Antonio Rossi (in memoriam) of Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo for helpful assistance during microbiological processing and analysis.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 3.Ayşegül O, Elgin IE, Gulcin A, Nedim S (2007) The efficacy of chlorhexidine spray vs mouthwash in the microbial contamination of child toothbrushes. J Dent Child 74:177–181Google Scholar
- 14.Nelson-Filho P, Faria G, Silva RA, Rossi MA, Ito IY (2006) Evaluation of the contamination and disinfection methods of toothbrushes used by 24- to 48-month-old children. J Dent Child 73:152–158Google Scholar
- 16.Tedjosasongko U, Kozai K (2002) Initial acquisition and transmission of mutans streptococci in children at day nursery. J Dent Child 69:284–288Google Scholar
- 17.Köhler B, Bratthall D (1978) Intrafamilial levels of Streptococcus mutans and some aspects of the bacterial transmission. J Dent Res 86:35–42Google Scholar
- 25.Saravia ME, Nelson-Filho P, Silva RAB, Faria G, Rossi MA, Ito IY (2008) Viability of Streptococcus mutans toothbrush bristles. J Dent Child 75:29–32Google Scholar