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Ontogenetic changes of craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone



The present study assessed changes of craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome (TS) patients treated with growth hormone (GH) during development. The objective was to examine the growth rate and pattern of craniofacial structures and to establish effects of GH on craniofacial development.

Materials and methods

The study population consisted of 15 TS patients treated with GH aged 5–18.5 years (13.3 ± 4.4) and corresponding control group of 45 females aged 6.8–18.7 (11.4 ± 2.6). According to the stage of cervical vertebral maturation, subjects were categorized into pre-growth (5 TS and 15 controls) and growth (10 TS and 30 controls) subgroups. The cephalometric analysis comprised angular and linear variables, measured on lateral cephalometric radiographs.


The mandibular corpus/anterior cranial base ratio increased significantly only in controls during development. In growth period, ramus/corpus ratio was significantly larger in TS group. SNA and SNB angles were significantly smaller in TS growth subgroup compared to corresponding controls. Among other variables, no statistically significant differences were revealed.


In TS patients treated with GH, growth capacities of cranial base and maxilla are adequate which can be attributed to GH treatment. Shape of mandible is altered due to decreased growth of corpus and overdeveloped ramus. Both maxillary and mandibular retrognathism are becoming more expressed during development.

Clinical relevance

Favorable influence of GH on craniofacial complex growth rate and altered growth pattern revealed in this study should be considered while planning both orthodontic treatment and retention.

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This work was supported by the grant # 175075 of the Serbian Ministry of Education and Science.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Jovana Juloski.

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Juloski, J., Glisic, B., Scepan, I. et al. Ontogenetic changes of craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. Clin Oral Invest 17, 1563–1571 (2013).

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  • Turner syndrome
  • Growth hormone therapy
  • Craniofacial development
  • Bimaxillary retrognathism