Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 425–429 | Cite as

Effect of chewing gums containing xylitol or probiotic bacteria on salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli

  • E. Çaglar
  • S. C. Kavaloglu
  • O. O. Kuscu
  • N. Sandalli
  • P. L. Holgerson
  • S. Twetman
Original Article


The aim was to evaluate the effect of xylitol and probiotic chewing gums on salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB). The material consisted of 80 healthy young adults (21–24 years) who volunteered after informed consent. They were assigned by random into one of four parallel study groups: A, probiotic gum group; B, xylitol gum group; C, probiotic + xylitol gum group; and D, placebo gum group. The gums were taken three times daily after meals, and the intervention period was 3 weeks. The probiotic gums contained two strains of Lactobacilli reuteri (ATCC 55730 at a dose of 1 × 108 CFU/gum and ATCC PTA 5289 at a dose of 1 × 108 CFU/gum), and each pellet of the xylitol gum contained ≈1.0 g xylitol as single sweetener. Pretreatment and posttreatment samples of stimulated whole saliva were collected and quantified for MS and LB with chair-side kits. A statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) of salivary MS was displayed in group A and B after the intervention when compared with baseline. A similar but nonsignificant tendency was seen in group C. No alterations of salivary LB was demonstrated in any group. In conclusion, daily chewing on gums containing probiotic bacteria or xylitol reduced the levels of salivary MS in a significant way. However, a combination of probiotic and xylitol gums did not seem to enhance this effect.


Bacteriotherapy Cariogenic bacteria Chewing gums Oral ecology Whole saliva 



The authors would like to thank Paula Matala (Fennobon Oy, Karkkila, Finland) for supplying the xylitol gums and Eamonn Connolly (Biogaia, Stockholm, Sweden) for providing probiotic and placebo chewing gums. The chair-side saliva tests were generously donated by the Ivoclar-Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Çaglar
    • 1
  • S. C. Kavaloglu
    • 1
  • O. O. Kuscu
    • 1
  • N. Sandalli
    • 1
  • P. L. Holgerson
    • 2
  • S. Twetman
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Paediatric Dentistry, School of DentistryYeditepe UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Odontology, Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of MedicineUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  3. 3.Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

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