Regardless of the extensive research conducted on large-scale evacuations, the instrumentation of these processes still represents an open issue for first response organizations. Self-evacuation of civilians that follows evacuation plans has shown to be feasible as early response to several natural disasters; however, the typical lack of interaction capability of the evacuees with first response organizations and emergency managers jeopardizes the effectiveness of these processes. This article proposes an IoT-based infrastructure that supports self-evacuation of civilians in mass processes, allowing people to participate as information providers and consumers. This infrastructure is the backbone of an ambient intelligence system used as a bridge between evacuees, first response units, and the emergency operation center managing the process. Depending on the people location and the status of the area, the system implements breadcrumbs that guide people to shelters and safe places. The proposed infrastructure includes (1) an architecture that captures the core design aspects of the solution and makes it reusable for other researchers, (2) an implementation of the system based on Raspberry Pi 3 devices with LoRa radio connectivity, (3) a mobile application that allows evacuees to interact with the evacuation system, and (4) a simplified algorithm to support the deployment of the IoT-based infrastructure into an urban area. The solution was evaluated using real measurements and simulations, and the obtained results are highly encouraging.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abbasi KM, Khan TA, Haq IU (2019) Hierarchical modeling of complex Internet of Things systems using conceptual modeling approaches. IEEE Access 7:102,772–102,791
Al-Nabhan N, Al-Aboody N, Islam AAA (2019) A hybrid IoT-based approach for emergency evacuation. Comput Netw 155:87–97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2019.03.015
Araneda JC, Rudnick H, Mocarquer S, Miquel P (2010) Lessons from the 2010 chilean earthquake and its impact on electricity supply. In: 2010 International conference on power system technology, pp 1–7
Avvenuti M, Cimino M, Cresci S, Marchetti A, Tesconi M (2016) A framework for detecting unfolding emergencies using humans as sensors Springerplus 5(43). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-1674-y
Bi H, Gelenbe E (2019) A survey of algorithms and systems for evacuating people in confined spaces. Electronics 8:711. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8060711
Conti M, Passarella A, Das SK (2017) The internet of people (iop): a new wave in pervasive mobile computing. Pervasive Mob Comput 41:1–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmcj.2017.07.009
Díaz P, Onorati T, Romano M, Aedo I (2018) Designing affordable technologies to integrate citizens in early warning activities. Proceedings 2:1253. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2191253
Eaton JW, Bateman D, Hauberg S, Wehbring R (2017) GNU Octave version 4.2.1 manual: a high-level interactive language for numerical computations. https://www.gnu.org/software/octave/doc/v4.2.1/
Eggly GM, Finochietto JM, Micheletto M, Centelles RP, Santos R, Ochoa SF, Meseguer R, Orozco J (2019) Evacuation supporting system based on iot components. In: Multidisciplinary digital publishing institute proceedings, vol 31, p 38
Eismann K, Posegga O, Fischbach K (2018) Decision making in emergency management: The role of social media. In: ECIS 2018 Proceedings, pp 2–20
Glushkova T, Stoyanov S (2018) Ambient-oriented modeling of intelligent context-aware systems. Bulgarian Comput Sci Commun 7(1):53–61
Hossmann T, Legendre F, Carta P, Gunningberg P, Rohner C (2011) Twitter in disaster mode: Opportunistic communication and distribution of sensor data in emergencies. In: Proceedings of the 3rd extreme conference on communication: the amazon expedition, extremecom ’11, pp 1-6, Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1145/2414393.2414394
Houston JB, Hawthorne J, Perreault M, Park E, Hode M, Halliwell M, McGowen S, Davis R, Vaid S, Mcelderry J, Griffith S (2014) Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research. Disasters, 39. https://doi.org/10.1111/disa.12092
Huang CF, Tseng YC (2005) The coverage problem in a wireless sensor network. Mob Netw Appl 10(4):519–528. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11036-005-1564-y
Kishorbhai VY, Vasantbhai NN (2017) Aon: a survey on emergency communication systems during a catastrophic disaster. Procedia Comput Sci 115:838–845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.09.166. 7th International Conference on Advances in Computing & Communications, ICACC-2017, 22-24 August 2017, Cochin, India
Koussaifi M, Trouilhet S, Arcangeli JP, Bruel JM (2018) Ambient intelligence users in the loop: towards a model-driven approach. In: Federation of international conferences on software technologies: Applications and foundations, pp 558–572. Springer
Lanese I, Bedogni L, Di Felice M (2013) Internet of Things: a process calculus approach. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual ACM symposium on applied computing, SAC ’13, pp 1339-1346, Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1145/2480362.2480615
Lujak M, Billhardt H, Dunkel J, Fernández A, Hermoso R, Ossowski S (2017) A distributed architecture for real-time evacuation guidance in large smart buildings. Comput Sci Inf Sys 14:257–282. https://doi.org/10.2298/CSIS161014002L
Malizia A, Onorati T, Diaz P, Aedo I, Astorga-Paliza F (2010) Sema4a: an ontology for emergency notification systems accessibility. Expert Sys Appl 37(4):3380–3391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2009.10.010
Miaoudakis AI, Petroulakis NE, Kastanis D, Askoxylakis IG (2014) Communications in emergency and crisis situations. In: Distributed, ambient, and pervasive interactions (DAPI), international conference on, p 555–565. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07788-8_51
Micheletto M, Petrucci V, Santos R, Orozco J, Mosse D, Ochoa SF, Meseguer R (2018) Flying real-time network to coordinate disaster relief activities in urban areas. Sensors 18(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051662
Mileti D (1999) Disasters by design: A reassessment of natural hazards in the United States. Joseph Henry Press
Milner R, Parrow J, Walker D (1989) A calculus of mobile processes, part 1. university of edinburgh laboratory for foundations of computer science
Mulero Chaves J, De Cola T (2017) 1 - public warning applications: Requirements and examples. In: Câmara D, Nikaein N (eds) Wireless public safety networks. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78548-053-9.50001-9, vol 3. Elsevier, pp 1–18
Murayama Y, Yamamoto K (2019) Research on disaster communications. In: IFIP Advances in information and communication technology, vol 516. Springer, Cham, pp 1–11
Nations U (2019) World population prospects 2019
Ochoa SF, Santos R (2015) Human-centric wireless sensor networks to improve information availability during urban search and rescue activities. Inf Fusion 22:71–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.inffus.2013.05.009
Onorati T, Malizia A, Diaz P, Aedo I (2014) Modeling an ontology on accessible evacuation routes for emergencies. Expert Syst Appl 41(16):7124–7134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2014.05.039
Paul PS, Hazra K, Saha S, Nandi S, Chakraborty S, Das S (2017) Generating crisis maps for large-scale disasters: Issues and challenges. this publication is an outcome of the r&d work undertaken in the itra project of media lab asia entitled. ”post-disaster situation analysis and resource management using delay-tolerant peer-to-peer wireless networks (disarm)”. In: Câmara D, Nikaein N (eds) Wireless public safety networks 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78548-053-9.50004-4. Elsevier, pp 67–98
Párraga Niebla C, Mulero Chaves J, De Cola T (2016). In: Câmara D, Nikaein N (eds) Wireless public safety networks 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78548-052-2.50008-6. Elsevier, pp 227–261
Pueyo Centelles R, Meseguer R, Freitag F, Navarro L, Ochoa SF, Santos RM (2021) Loramoto: a communication system to provide safety awareness among civilians after an earthquake. Futur Gener Comput Syst 115:150–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.future.2020.07.040
Reina DG, Askalani M, Toral SL, Barrero F, Asimakopoulou E, Bessis N (2015) A survey on multihop ad hoc networks for disaster response scenarios. Int J Distrib Sens Netw 2015:3. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/647037
Reuter C (2014) Communication between power blackout and mobile network overload. International Journal of Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (IJISCRAM) (accepted), 6, https://doi.org/10.4018/ijiscram.2014040103
Romano M, Onorati T, Aedo I, Díaz P (2016) Designing mobile applications for emergency response: Citizens acting as human sensors. Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 16
Santos R, Mosse D, Znati T, Comfort L (2016) Design and implementation of a witness unit for opportunistic routing in tsunami alert scenarios. Saf Sci 90:75–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2015.09.014. Building Community Resilience to Global Hazards: A Sociotechnical Approach
Spialek ML, Houston JB (2019) The influence of citizen disaster communication on perceptions of neighborhood belonging and community resilience. J Appl Commun Res 47(1):1–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00909882.2018.1544718
Stieglitz S, Bunker D, Mirbabaie M, Ehnis C (2017) Sense-making in social media during extreme events. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 26, https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5973.12193
This work was partially funded by the Spanish Government under contract PID2019-106774RB-C21, the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) under contracts PCI2019-111850-2 and PCI2019-111851-2 and the Generalitat de Catalunya as Consolidated Research Group 2017-SGR-990.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Finochietto, J.M., Micheletto, M., Eggly, G.M. et al. An IoT-based infrastructure to enhance self-evacuations in natural hazardous events. Pers Ubiquit Comput (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-020-01506-z
- IoT-Based infrastructure
- Ambient intelligence system
- Large-scale self-evacuations
- Participation of civilians
- Human sensors
- Natural disasters