Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 471–487 | Cite as

User social activity-based routing for cognitive radio networks

  • Junling Lu
  • Zhipeng Cai
  • Xiaoming Wang
  • Lichen Zhang
  • Peng Li
  • Zaobo He
Original Article


The social activities of Primary Users (PUs) and Secondary Users (SUs) affect actual accessible whitespace in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). However, the impacts of primary activities on available whitespace have been extensively investigated due to the dominating priority of PUs, while the impacts of secondary activities on actual accessible whitespace have been ignored. Therefore, we propose to incorporate the primary and secondary activities in the analysis and decision of the accessible whitespace, namely, both the dominance of PUs over SUs and the competitions among SUs are simultaneously taken into account. Specifically, we first approximate primary activity probability based on the real datasets of mobile phone usage records, then the spectrum opportunity between a pair of communication SUs is deduced based on primary activities. Next, we infer the access probability limit of SUs successfully accessing the whitespace according to the primary activity probability, and depict the secondary activity probability from the views of social activity patterns and social networks respectively. Furthermore, the actual accessible probability of whitespace is given by introducing the competitions among SUs. Finally, a greedy routing algorithm, considering the accessible whitespace and the distance to the destination, is proposed to verify our idea. The experiment results based on the real datasets demonstrate the correctness of our analysis and the advantages of the proposed algorithm.


Funding information

This work is partly supported by the National Science Foundation under grant no. CNS-1252292, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under grants Nos. 61373083, 61370084, 61502116, and 61402273, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China under grants Nos. GK201703061, GK201401002 and GK201603115, and the State Scholarship Fund of China.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junling Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhipeng Cai
    • 3
  • Xiaoming Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lichen Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Peng Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zaobo He
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Modern Teaching Technology, Ministry of EducationXi’anChina
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceShaanxi Normal UniversityXi’anChina
  3. 3.Department of Computer ScienceGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

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