Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 635–651 | Cite as

Shared mobile displays: an exploratory study of their use in a museum setting

  • Joel LanirEmail author
  • Alan J. Wecker
  • Tsvi Kuflik
  • Yasmin Felberbaum
Original Article


We conducted an exploratory study that examines the use of shared mobile displays such as mobile projectors and tablets to support group activities. We compare how a small group of visitors use either a shared display or personal individual devices in a museum visit context, in both a navigation task and a media viewing task. Group proximity, decision making, leadership patterns, and interaction between group members as well as attitudes are analyzed. We report on various usage patterns observed with group use of shared displays and discuss user preferences in comparison with the non-shared handheld alternative. Results show how mobile shared displays can support and enhance the group experience, by providing a shared mobile environment. Mobile shared displays increase group cohesiveness as was shown by increased proximity and amount of discussion by participants. Users perceive the use of shared displays as both useful and enjoyable, with the caveat that many users still want to retain individual control. We discuss this trade-off between groupness and individual control, as well as provide an analysis of the relative advantages of each shared display option.


Shared mobile display Co-located group Mobile projector Tablet Museum 



The work was supported by the collaboration project between the Caesarea-Rothschild Institute at the University of Haifa and FBK/irst and by FIRB Project RBIN045PXH and by the Israeli Science Foundation Grant ISF 226/10.


  1. 1.
    Stewart J, Bederson BB, Druin A (1999) Single display groupware: a model for co-present collaboration. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 286–293Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greenberg S, Boyle M, LaBerge J (1999) PDAs and shared public displays: making personal information public, and public information personal. Pers Ubiquit Comput 3:54–64Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Izadi S, Brignull H, Rodden T, Rogers Y, Underwood M (2003) Dynamo: a public interactive surface supporting the cooperative sharing and exchange of media. In: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology, pp 159–168Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Peltonen P, Kurvinen E, Salovaara A, Jacucci G, Ilmonen T, Evans J, Oulasvirta A, Saarikko P (2008) It’s Mine, Don’t Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 1285–1294Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cole H, Stanton D (2003) Designing mobile technologies to support co-present collaboration. Pers Ubiquit Comput 7:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Falk JH (2009) Identity and the museum visitor experience. Left Coast Press Walnut Creek, CAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wallace JR, Scott SD, Stutz T, Enns T, Inkpen K (2009) Investigating teamwork and taskwork in single-and multi-display groupware systems. Pers Ubiquit Comput 13:569–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liu CC, Kao LC (2007) Do handheld devices facilitate face-to-face collaboration? Handheld devices with large shared display groupware to facilitate group interactions. J Comput Assisted Learn 23:285–299MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lundgren S, Fischer JE, Reeves S, Torgersson O (2015) Designing mobile experiences for collocated interaction. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work and social computing, pp 496–507Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lucero A, Holopainen J, Jokela T (2012) MobiComics: collaborative use of mobile phones and large displays for public expression. In: Proceedings of the 14th international conference on human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 383–392Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lucero A, Holopainen J, Jokela T (2011) Pass-them-around: collaborative use of mobile phones for photo sharing. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 1787–1796Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ah Kun LM, Marsden G (2007) Co-present photo sharing on mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 277–284Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patel N, Clawson J, Voida A, Lyons K (2009) Mobiphos: a study of user engagement with a mobile collocated-synchronous photo sharing application. Int J Hum Comput Stud 67:1048–1059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lucero A, Keränen J, Korhonen H (2010) Collaborative use of mobile phones for brainstorming. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 337–340Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rekimoto J, Ayatsuka Y, Kohno M (2003) SyncTap: An interaction technique for mobile networking. In: Human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 104–115Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hinckley K (2003) Synchronous gestures for multiple persons and computers. In: Proceedings of the 16th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology, pp 149–158Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Willis KDD (2011) A pre-history of handheld projector-based interaction. Pers Ubiquit Comput 16:1–11Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rukzio E, Holleis P, Gellersen H (2011) Personal projectors for pervasive computing. IEEE Pervasive Comput 2:30–37Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Winkler C, Seifert J, Dobbelstein D, Rukzio E (2014) Pervasive information through constant personal projection: the ambient mobile pervasive display (AMP-D). In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 4117–4126Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cao X, Forlines C, Balakrishnan R (2007) Multi-user interaction using handheld projectors. In: Proceedings of the 20th annual ACM symposium on user interface software and technology, pp 43–52Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greaves A, Hang A, Rukzio E (2008) Picture browsing and map interaction using a projector phone. In: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 527–530Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Greaves A, Rukzio E (2009) View and share: supporting co-present viewing and sharing of media using personal projection. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kawsar F, Rukzio E, Kortuem G (2010) An explorative comparison of magic lens and personal projection for interacting with smart objects. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 157-160Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mathur A, Ramachandran D, Cutrell E, Balakrishnan R (2011) An exploratory study on the use of camera phones and pico projectors in rural India. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on human–computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 347–356Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Greaves A, Akerman P, Rukzio E, Cheverst K, Hakkila J (2009) Exploring user reaction to personal projection when used in shared public places: a formative study. In: CAM3SN Workshop at MobileHCIGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cao X (2009) Handheld projector interaction. Doctoral dissertation, University of TorontoGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buxton W, Hill R, Rowley P (1985) Issues and techniques in touch-sensitive tablet input. ACM SIGGRAPH Comput Graph 19:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Halpern S (2010) The iPad revolution. New York Review of Books 57Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pearson J, Buchanan G (2010) Real-time document collaboration using iPads. In: Proceedings of the third workshop on research advances in large digital book repositories and complementary media, pp 9–14Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Olwal A, Frykholm O, Groth K, Moll J (2011) Design and evaluation of interaction technology for medical team meetings. In: Human–computer interaction–INTERACT, pp 505–522Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Issacson A, Mcguire S, Sayre S, Wetterlund K (2011) Enhancing group tours with the iPad: a case study. In: Proctor N (ed) Mobile apps for museums: the AAM guide to planning and strategy. The AAM Press, Washington, p 89Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Leinhardt G, Knutson K (2004) Listening in on museum conversations. Altamira Press, Walnut CreekGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bitgood S, Shettel HH (1996) An overview of visitor studies. J Mus Educ 21:6–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuflik T, Stock O, Zancanaro M, Gorfinkel A, Jbara S, Kats S, Sheidin J, Kashtan N (2011) A visitor’s guide in an active museum: presentations, communications, and reflection. J Comput Cult Herit (JOCCH) 3:11Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stock O, Zancanaro M, Busetta P, Callaway C, Krüger A, Kruppa M, Kuflik T, Not E, Rocchi C (2007) Adaptive, intelligent presentation of information for the museum visitor in PEACH. User Model User-Adap Interact 17:257–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abowd GD, Atkeson CG, Hong J, Long S, Kooper R, Pinkerton M (1997) Cyberguide: a mobile context-aware tour guide. Wirel Netw 3:421–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cheverst K, Davies N, Mitchell K, Friday A (2000) Experiences of developing and deploying a context-aware tourist guide: the GUIDE project. In: Proceedings of the 6th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking, pp 20–31Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lanir J, Kuflik T, Dim E, Wecker AJ, Stock O (2013) The influence of a location-aware mobile guide on museum visitors’ behavior. Interact Comput 25:443–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Aoki PM, Grinter RE, Hurst A, Szymanski MH, Thornton JD, Woodruff A (2002) Sotto voce: exploring the interplay of conversation and mobile audio spaces. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pp 431–438Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Suh Y, Shin C, Woo W, Dow S, MacIntyre B (2011) Enhancing and evaluating users’ social experience with a mobile phone guide applied to cultural heritage. Pers Ubiquit Comput 15:649–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fosh L, Benford S, Reeves S, Koleva B, Brundell P (2013) See me, feel me, touch me, hear me: trajectories and interpretation in a sculpture garden. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 149–158Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Luyten K, Van Loon H, Teunkens D, Gabriëls K, Coninx K, Manshoven E (2006) ARCHIE: disclosing a museum by a socially-aware mobile guide. In: Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on virtual reality, archaeology and cultural heritage, pp 221–226Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ghiani G, Paternņ F, Santoro C, Spano LD (2009) UbiCicero: a location-aware, multi-device museum guide. Interact Comput 21:288–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sumi Y, Mase K (2001) AgentSalon: facilitating face-to-face knowledge exchange through conversations among personal agents. In: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on autonomous agents, pp 393–400Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dini R, Paternò F, Santoro C (2007) An environment to support multi-user interaction and cooperation for improving museum visits through games. In: Proceedings of the 9th international conference on human computer interaction with mobile devices and services, pp 515–521Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Callaway C, Stock O, Dekoven E, Noy K, Citron Y, Dobrin Y (2012) Mobile drama in an instrumented museum: inducing group conversation via coordinated narratives. New Rev Hypermedia Multimed 18:37–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kuflik T, Lanir J, Dim E, Wecker A, Corra M, Zancanaro M, Stock O (2011) Indoor positioning: challenges and solutions for indoor cultural heritage sites. In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on intelligent user interfaces, pp 375–378Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Reilly D, Mackay B, Watters C, Inkpen K (2009) Planners, navigators, and pragmatists: collaborative wayfinding using a single mobile phone. Pers Ubiquit Comput 13:321–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mendoza V, Novick DG (2005) Usability over time. In: Proceedings of the 23rd annual international conference on design of communication: documenting and designing for pervasive information, pp 151–158Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tullis T, Albert W (2008) Measuring the user experience: collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Morgan Kaufmann, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    DiMicco JM, Pandolfo A, Bender W (2004) Influencing group participation with a shared display. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work, pp 614–623Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rogers Y, Lindley S (2004) Collaborating around vertical and horizontal large interactive displays: which way is best? Interact Comput 16:1133–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bekker MM, Olson JS, Olson GM (1995) Analysis of gestures in face-to-face design teams provides guidance for how to use groupware in design. In: Proceedings of the 1st conference on designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, and techniques, pp 157–166Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beardsley P, Van Baar J, Raskar R, Forlines C (2005) Interaction using a handheld projector. Comput Graph Appl 25:39–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dawes J (2008) Do data characteristics change according to the number of scale points used? An experiment using 5 point, 7 point and 10 point scales. Int J Mark Res 50(1):61–104MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lanir J, Kuflik T, Wecker AJ, Stock O, Zancanaro M (2011) Examining proactiveness and choice in a location-aware mobile museum guide. Interact Comput 23:513–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Shneiderman B, Plaisant C (2009) Designing the user interface. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dalsgaard P, Halskov K (2011) 3D projection on physical objects: design insights from five real life cases. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 1041–1050Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Möller A, Kranz M, Huitl R, Diewald S, Roalter L (2012) A mobile indoor navigation system interface adapted to vision-based localization. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on mobile and ubiquitous multimediaGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cooper A (1999) The inmates are running the asylum: [Why high-tech products drive us crazy and how to restore the sanity]. Sams IndianapolisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Lanir
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan J. Wecker
    • 1
  • Tsvi Kuflik
    • 1
  • Yasmin Felberbaum
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of HaifaHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations