Music listening and navigation are both common tasks for mobile device users. In this study, we integrated music listening with a navigation service, allowing users to follow the perceived direction of the music to reach their destination. This navigation interface provided users with two different guidance methods: route guidance and beacon guidance. The user experience of the navigation service was evaluated with pedestrians in a city center and with cyclists in a suburban area. The results show that spatialized music can be used to guide pedestrians and cyclists toward a destination without any prior training, offering a pleasant navigation experience. Both route and beacon guidance were deemed good alternatives, but the preference between them varied from person to person and depended on the situation. Beacon guidance was generally considered to be suitable for familiar surroundings, while route guidance was seen as a better alternative for areas that are unfamiliar or more difficult to navigate.
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The research leading to these results has received funding from Nokia Technologies. The authors would like to thank all participants in the user studies for their feedback and suggestions, as well as David McGookin for comments and discussion.
Appendix: Maps of the routes
Appendix: Maps of the routes
The routes taken by participants during route guidance in user study A are shown in Figs. 23 and 24. In this study, route guidance was tested during two tasks, with the second task starting where the first task ended, after the participants had answered the questionnaire and interview questions. The beacon guidance task started where the second route guidance task ended. The routes taken by the participants during beacon guidance are shown in Fig. 22. During this user study, the three tasks were always performed in the same order with the routes walked in the same direction.
The routes taken during route guidance in user study B are shown in Fig. 25 and the routes taken during beacon guidance are shown in Fig. 26. Two routes (starting points and destinations) where used in this study, with the second route starting where the first route ended. The order of the tasks (route and beacon guidance) and the order and direction of the two routes were counterbalanced between participants.
In user study C, two routes were again used, with the second route starting where the first route ended. The order of the tasks (route and beacon guidance) was counterbalanced between participants, as was the order and direction of the two routes. The routes that participants cycled using route guidance are shown in Figs. 27 and 29. The routes that participants cycled using beacon guidance are shown in Figs. 28 and 30.
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Albrecht, R., Väänänen, R. & Lokki, T. Guided by music: pedestrian and cyclist navigation with route and beacon guidance. Pers Ubiquit Comput 20, 121–145 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-016-0906-z