LoCo: boosting for indoor location classification combining Wi-Fi and BLE


In recent years, there has been an explosion of services that leverage location to provide users novel and engaging experiences. However, many applications fail to realize their full potential because of limitations in current location technologies. Current frameworks work well outdoors but fare poorly indoors. In this paper, we present LoCo, a new framework that can provide highly accurate room-level indoor location. LoCo does not require users to carry specialized location hardware—it uses radios that are present in most contemporary devices and, combined with a boosting classification technique, provides a significant runtime performance improvement. We provide experiments that show the combined radio technique can achieve accuracy that improves on current state-of-the-art Wi-Fi-only techniques. LoCo is designed to be easily deployed within an environment and readily leveraged by application developers. We believe LoCo’s high accuracy and accessibility can drive a new wave of location-driven applications and services.

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    RSSI is measured on a logarithmic scale.

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    Multiple BSSIDs are associated with a single Wi-Fi access point. Here, we include and withhold BSSIDs by access point.


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Cooper, M., Biehl, J., Filby, G. et al. LoCo: boosting for indoor location classification combining Wi-Fi and BLE. Pers Ubiquit Comput 20, 83–96 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00779-015-0899-z

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  • Indoor location detection
  • Multi-radio indoor positioning
  • Location-aware application frameworks