Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 83–96 | Cite as

LoCo: boosting for indoor location classification combining Wi-Fi and BLE

  • Matthew Cooper
  • Jacob Biehl
  • Gerry Filby
  • Sven Kratz
Original Article


In recent years, there has been an explosion of services that leverage location to provide users novel and engaging experiences. However, many applications fail to realize their full potential because of limitations in current location technologies. Current frameworks work well outdoors but fare poorly indoors. In this paper, we present LoCo, a new framework that can provide highly accurate room-level indoor location. LoCo does not require users to carry specialized location hardware—it uses radios that are present in most contemporary devices and, combined with a boosting classification technique, provides a significant runtime performance improvement. We provide experiments that show the combined radio technique can achieve accuracy that improves on current state-of-the-art Wi-Fi-only techniques. LoCo is designed to be easily deployed within an environment and readily leveraged by application developers. We believe LoCo’s high accuracy and accessibility can drive a new wave of location-driven applications and services.


Indoor location detection Multi-radio indoor positioning Location-aware application frameworks 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew Cooper
    • 1
  • Jacob Biehl
    • 1
  • Gerry Filby
    • 1
  • Sven Kratz
    • 1
  1. 1.FX Palo Alto LaboratoryPalo AltoUSA

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