Personal and Ubiquitous Computing

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 143–154 | Cite as

Conductive rubber electrodes for earphone-based eye gesture input interface

  • Hiroyuki ManabeEmail author
  • Masaaki Fukumoto
  • Tohru Yagi
Original Article


An eartip made of conductive rubber that also realizes biopotential electrodes is proposed for a daily-use earphone-based eye gesture input interface. Several prototypes, each with three electrodes to capture electrooculogram (EOG), are implemented on earphones and examined. Experiments with one subject over a 10-day period reveal that all prototypes capture EOG similarly but they differ as regards stability of the baseline and the presence of motion artifacts. Another experiment conducted on a simple eye-controlled application with six subjects shows that the proposed prototype minimizes motion artifacts and offers good performance. Artifacts induced by daily motion while wearing the proposed electrode and eye gesture performance are also measured, and we discuss how to deal with them. We conclude that conductive rubber with mixed Ag filler is the most suitable setup in our experiment.


EOG Electrode Conductive rubber Earphone  Eye gesture Motion artifact 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hiroyuki Manabe
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Masaaki Fukumoto
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tohru Yagi
    • 2
  1. 1.Research LabsNTT DOCOMOYokosukaJapan
  2. 2.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Microsoft ResearchBeijingChina

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