The VLDB Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 55–80 | Cite as

Order Indexes: supporting highly dynamic hierarchical data in relational main-memory database systems

  • Jan Finis
  • Robert Brunel
  • Alfons Kemper
  • Thomas Neumann
  • Norman May
  • Franz Faerber
Special Issue Paper


Maintaining and querying hierarchical data in a relational database system is an important task in many business applications. This task is especially challenging when considering dynamic use cases with a high rate of complex, possibly skewed structural updates. Labeling schemes are widely considered the indexing technique of choice for hierarchical data, and many different schemes have been proposed. However, they cannot handle dynamic use cases well due to various problems, which we investigate in this paper. We therefore propose Order Indexes—a dynamic representation of the nested intervals encoding—which offer competitive query performance, unprecedented update efficiency, and robustness for highly dynamic workloads.


Hierarchical data Indexing Nested intervals Tree data Tree indexing Nested intervals 


  1. 1.
    Al-Khalifa, S., Agadish, H., Koudas, N., Patel, J.M., Srivastava, D., Wu, Y.: Structural joins: a primitive for efficient XML query pattern matching. In: ICDE, pp. 141–152 (2002)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Amagasa, T., Yoshikawa, M., Uemura, S.: QRS: a robust numbering scheme for XML documents. In: ICDE, pp. 705–707 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berglund, A., Boag, S., Chamberlin, D., Fernández, M.F., Kay, M., Robie, J., Siméon, J.: XML Path Language (XPath) version 2.0. W3C Recommendation (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boncz, P., Manegold, S., Rittinger J.: Updating the pre/post plane in MonetDB/XQuery. In: XIME-P (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brunel, R., Finis, J., Franz, G., May, N., Kemper, A., Neumann, T., Faerber, F.: Supporting hierarchical data in SAP HANA. In: ICDE (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bruno, N., Koudas, N., Srivastava, D.: Holistic twig joins: optimal XML pattern matching. In: SIGMOD, pp. 310–321 (2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cai, J., Poon, C.K.: OrdPathX: supporting two dimensions of node insertion in XML data. In: DEXA, pp. 903–908 (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chawathe, S., Garcia-Molina, H.: Meaningful change detection in structured data. In: SIGMOD, pp. 26–37 (1997)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen, E., Kaplan, H., Milo, T.: Labeling dynamic XML trees. SIAM J. Comput. 39(5), 2048–2074 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Finis, J., Brunel, R., Kemper, A., Neumann, T., Faerber, F., May, N.: DeltaNI: an efficient labeling scheme for versioned hierarchical data. In: SIGMOD, pp. 905–916 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Finis, J., Brunel, R., Kemper, A., Neumann, T., May, N., Faerber, F.: Indexing highly dynamic hierarchical data. In: VLDB, pp. 986–997 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grust, T., van Keulen, M., Teubner, J.: Staircase join: teach a relational DBMS to watch its (axis) steps. In: VLDB, pp. 524–535 (2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halverson, A., Burger, J., Galanis, L., Kini, A., Krishnamurthy, R., Rao, A.N., Tian, F., Viglas, S., Wang, Y., Naughton, J., DeWitt, D.: Mixed mode XML query processing. In: VLDB, pp. 225–236 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haustein, M., Härder, T., Mathis, C., Wagner, M.: DeweyIDs—the key to fine-grained management of XML documents. In: SBBD, pp. 85–99 (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jagadish, H., Al-Khalifa, S., Chapman, A., Lakshmanan, L., Nierman, A., Paparizos, S., Patel, J., Srivastava, D., Wiwatwattana, N., Wu, Y., Yu, C.: Timber: a native XML database. VLDB J. 11(4), 274–291 (2002)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li, C., Ling, T.W.: QED: a novel quaternary encoding to completely avoid re-labeling in XML updates. In: CIKM, pp. 501–508 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, C., Ling, T.W., Hu, M.: Efficient processing of updates in dynamic XML data. In: ICDE (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li, C., Ling, T.W., Hu, M.: Efficient updates in dynamic XML data: from binary string to quaternary string. VLDB J. 17(3), 573–601 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li, Q., Moon, B.: Indexing and querying XML data for regular path expressions. In: VLDB, pp. 361–370 (2001)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mehta, D.P., Sahni, S.: Handbook of Data structures and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2004)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Min, J.-K., Lee, J., Chung, C.-W.: An efficient XML encoding and labeling method for query processing and updating on dynamic XML data. JSS 82(3), 503–515 (2009)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Neumann, T.: Efficiently compiling efficient query plans for modern hardware. In: VLDB, pp. 539–550 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    O’Neil, P., O’Neil, E., Pal, S., Cseri, I., Schaller, G., Westbury, N.: ORDPATHs: insert-friendly XML node labels. In: SIGMOD, pp. 903–908 (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    SAP SE: Solutions—data management—SAP HANA Vora, Dec 2015.
  25. 25.
    Sasaki, S., Araki, T.: Modularizing B\(^+\)-trees: three-level B\(^+\)-trees work fine. In: ADMS, pp. 46–57 (2013)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Silberstein, A., He, H., Yi, K., Yang, J.: BOXes: efficient maintenance of order-based labeling for dynamic XML data. In: ICDE, pp. 285–296 (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tatarinov, I., Viglas, S., Beyer, K., Shanmugasundaram, J., Shekita, E., Zhang, C.: Storing and querying ordered XML using a relational database system. In: SIGMOD, pp. 204–215 (2002)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xu, L., Ling, T.W., Wu, H., Bao, Z.: DDE: From Dewey to a fully dynamic XML labeling scheme. In: SIGMOD, pp. 719–730 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yun, J.-H., Chung, C.-W.: Dynamic interval-based labeling scheme for efficient XML query and update processing. JSS 81(1), 56–70 (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zezula, P., Mandreoli, F., Martoglia, R.: Tree signatures and unordered XML pattern matching. In: SOFSEM, pp. 122–139 (2004)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang, C., Naughton, J., DeWitt, D., Luo, Q., Lohman, G.: On supporting containment queries in relational database management systems. In: SIGMOD, pp. 425–436 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technical University of MunichGarchingGermany
  2. 2.SAP SEWalldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations