The interaction between SBA-15 derivative loaded with Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH and human melanoma A375 cell line: uptake and stem phenotype loss
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Extraordinary progress in medicinal inorganic chemistry in the past few years led to the rational design of novel platinum compounds, as well as nonplatinum metal-based antitumor agents, including organotin compounds, whose activity is not based on unrepairable interaction with DNA. To overcome poor solubility and toxicity problems that limited the application of these compounds numerous delivering systems were used (Lila et al. in Biol Pharm Bull 37:206–211, 2014; Yue and Cao in Curr Cancer Drug Targets 16:480–488, 2016; Duan et al. in WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 8:776–791, 2016). Regarding high drug loading capacity, mesoporous silica nanoparticles like SBA-15 became more important for targeted drug delivery. In this study, cellular uptake and biological activities responsible for organotin(IV) compound Ph3Sn(CH2)6OH (Sn6) grafted into (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane functionalized SBA-15 (SBA-15p → SBA-15p|Sn6) were evaluated in human melanoma A375 cell line. Moreover, the influence of SBA-15p grafted with organotin(IV) compound on the stemness of A375 cell was tested. Given the fact that SBA-15p|Sn6 nanoparticles are nonspherical and relatively large, their internalization efficiently started even after 15 min with stable adhesion to the cell membrane. After only 2 h of incubation of A375 cells with SBA-15p|Sn6 passive fluid-phase uptake and macropinocytosis were observed. Inside of the cell, treatment with SBA-15p loaded with Sn6 promoted caspase-dependent apoptosis in parallel with senescence development. The subpopulation of cells expressing Schwann-like phenotype arose upon the treatment, while the signaling pathway responsible for maintenance of pluripotency and invasiveness, Wnt, Notch1, and Oct3/4 were modulated towards less aggressive signature. In summary, SBA-15p enhances the efficacy of free Sn6 compound through efficient uptake and well profiled intracellular response followed with decreased stem characteristics of highly invasive A375 melanoma cells.
KeywordsSBA-15 Organotin(IV) compound A375 melanoma cell line Drug uptake Stemness
This work was supported by the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development (Grant no. 173013) as well as the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
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