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A tale of two methane monooxygenases

  • Matthew O. Ross
  • Amy C. Rosenzweig
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Part of the following topical collections:
  1. 60 Years of Oxygen Activation

Abstract

Methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes activate O2 for oxidation of methane. Two distinct MMOs exist in nature, a soluble form that uses a diiron active site (sMMO) and a membrane-bound form with a catalytic copper center (pMMO). Understanding the reaction mechanisms of these enzymes is of fundamental importance to biologists and chemists, and is also relevant to the development of new biocatalysts. The sMMO catalytic cycle has been elucidated in detail, including O2 activation intermediates and the nature of the methane-oxidizing species. By contrast, many aspects of pMMO catalysis remain unclear, most notably the nuclearity and molecular details of the copper active site. Here, we review the current state of knowledge for both enzymes, and consider pMMO O2 activation intermediates suggested by computational and synthetic studies in the context of existing biochemical data. Further work is needed on all fronts, with the ultimate goal of understanding how these two remarkable enzymes catalyze a reaction not readily achieved by any other metalloenzyme or biomimetic compound.

Keywords

Methanotroph Methane monooxygenase Dioxygen activation Diiron Copper 

Abbreviations

AMO

Ammonia monooxygenase

BMM

Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenase

DβH

Dopamine β-hydroxylase

EPR

Electron paramagnetic resonance

EXAFS

Extended X-ray absorption fine structure

HMO

Hydrocarbon monooxygenase

MDH

Methanol dehydrogenase

MMO

Methane monooxygenase

MMOB

sMMO regulatory protein

MMOH

sMMO hydroxylase

MMOHox

MMOH with a diiron(III) site

MMOHred

MMOH with a diiron(II) site

MMOR

sMMO reductase

NDH-2

Type 2 NADH:quinone oxidoreductase

PHM

Peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase

pMMO

Particulate MMO

sMMO

Soluble MMO

Notes

Acknowledgements

Work in the Rosenzweig laboratory on biological methane oxidation is supported by National Institutes of Health Grant GM118035 (A. C. R.). M. O. R. was supported in part by National Institutes of Health Grant 5T32GM008382.

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© SBIC 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Molecular Biosciences and of ChemistryNorthwestern UniversityEvanstonUSA

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