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Jumping rope and whole-body vibration program effects on bone values in Olympic artistic swimmers

Abstract

Introduction

Artistic swimming seems not to benefit bone development like other out-of-water physical activities. To increase bone acquisition, artistic swimming should combine water training with weight-bearing impact or strength activities. Artistic swimmers can be a population at risk of developing osteopenia and osteoporosis in later life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a training program on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and body composition in an Olympic artistic swimming team.

Methods

Sixteen women aged 17–21 years, who train 30 h/week, at the Olympic Training Centre (Barcelona, Spain), were followed up over two seasons. The 1st season involved regular artistic swimming training without specific training to reduce the risk of osteopenia. The exercise intervention, jumping rope and whole-body vibration, was added in the 2nd season. The protocol included 20 min of training 2 days per week, over a 22-week period. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measured the bone variables and body composition. The daily diet, medical history and bone turnover markers were evaluated.

Results

The intervention program increased BMD on lumbar spine (2.10%, p = 0.002), total hip (2.07%, p = 0.001), and femoral neck (2.39%, p = 0.02). Lower limb’s fat mass decreased (10.17%, p = 0.038). No significant differences were found for any of the measured anthropometric characteristics between both time points in the 1st season.

In conclusions, combined jump rope and vibration should be considered to reduce the risk of bone damage in artistic swimmers.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge all the elite female athletes who voluntarily accepted to be our study subjects in the study: Esther Jaumà, a former coach, and Mayuko Fujiki, the current coach, for their support and comments, as well as all the technical staff of the Centre d’Alt Rendiment (CAR). The authors gratefully acknowledge the team physiotherapist, Cristina Marti, who participated in this study. We also thank to Dr. Ramon Canal, Medical Director of FC Barcelona Medical Services. We thank Manel Vela, head of the Sports Planification Department of the CAR, for his help in handling the study data. We particularly thank Jose Rios (PhD, MSc) for his help in the statistical analysis.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial and/or not-for-profit sectors.

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Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. MB wrote the first draft of the manuscript and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. MB carried out the bone densitometry studies, analyzed the results and drafted the manuscript; FD conceived and coordinated this study, participated in its design and reviewed the draft; VF and EJ helped in the analyses of the results and reviewed the draft; LD participated in the bone densitometry studies; XA supervised the technical execution of the exercise program; AT reviewed the document. All authors contributed to the editing and finalization of the manuscript. They have read and approved the final version of the manuscript, and agree with the order of presentation of the authors.

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Correspondence to Montse Bellver.

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Bellver, M., Drobnic, F., Jovell, E. et al. Jumping rope and whole-body vibration program effects on bone values in Olympic artistic swimmers. J Bone Miner Metab 39, 858–867 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00774-021-01224-3

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Keywords

  • Osteoporosis
  • Aquatic female high-level athletes
  • Whole body vibration
  • Jump training