Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 172–177 | Cite as

Effects of additional resistance training during diet-induced weight loss on bone mineral density in overweight premenopausal women

  • Yoshio NakataEmail author
  • Kazunori Ohkawara
  • Dong Jun Lee
  • Tomohiro Okura
  • Kiyoji Tanaka
Original Article


Bone loss accompanies a diet-induced weight loss and could be prevented with a combination of exercises. This study was conducted to examine the effects of additional resistance training during diet-induced weight loss on whole-body and selected regional bone mineral density (BMD). The participants of a 14-week weight-loss study were 42 overweight premenopausal Japanese women who were randomly placed in either a diet-only group (D; n = 21) or a diet plus resistance training group (DR; n = 21). Whole-body BMD and body composition, lumbar spine BMD, and 1/3 radial BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the intervention. Bone formation and resorption markers were also measured. Thirty-five participants (83%) completed the study. Individuals in groups D (n = 17) and DR (n = 18) lost 6.2 ± 3.5 kg and 8.6 ± 3.6 kg body weight, respectively. Reductions in percentage fat mass and fat mass in group DR were significantly greater than in group D; lean mass decreased significantly in both groups. The effect of time on whole-body BMD was significant (−0.3%); however, whole-body bone mineral content, lumbar spine BMD, and 1/3 radial BMD remained unchanged. There were no significant timeby-group interactions in the whole-body and regional BMD and bone markers. These results suggest that additional resistance training during weight loss has no effect on BMD in overweight premenopausal Japanese women. Further long-term studies with large numbers of subjects are needed.

Key words

body composition bone mass resistance training weight loss 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kenchaiah S, Evans JC, Levy D, Wilson PW, Benjamin EJ, Larson MG, Kannel WB, Vasan RS (2002) Obesity and the risk of heart failure. N Engl J Med 347:305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rexrode KM, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Rich-Edwards JW, Speizer FE, Manson JE (1997) A prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of stroke in women. JAMA 277:1539–1545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mendez MA, Monteiro CA, Popkin BM (2005) Overweight exceeds underweight among women in most developing countries. Am J Clin Nutr 81:714–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks JS (2003) Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 289:76–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rippe JM, McInnis KJ, Melanson KJ (2001) Physician involvement in the management of obesity as a primary medical condition. Obes Res 4:302S–311SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ensrud KE, Ewing SK, Stone KL, Cauley JA, Bowman PJ, Cummings SR; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. (2003) Intentional and unintentional weight loss increase bone loss and hip fracture risk in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1740–1747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knoke JD, Barrett-Connor E (2003) Weight loss: a determinant of hip bone loss in older men and women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 158:1132–1138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Macdonald HM, New SA, Campbell MK, Reid DM (2005) Influence of weight and weight change on bone loss in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal Scottish women. Osteoporos Int 16: 163–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nguyen TV, Sambrook PN, Eisman JA (1998) Bone loss, physical activity, and weight change in elderly women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study. J Bone Miner Res 13:1458–1467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Espallargues M, Sampietro-Colom L, Estrada MD, Sola M, del Rio L, Setoain J, Granados A (2001) Identifying bone-mass-related risk factors for fracture to guide bone densitometry measurements: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos Int 12:811–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chao D, Espeland MA, Farmer D, Register TC, Lenchik L, Applegate WB, Ettinger WH Jr (2000) Effect of voluntary weight loss on bone mineral density in older overweight women. J Am Geriatr Soc 48:753–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Compston JE, Laskey MA, Croucher PI, Coxon A, Kreitzman S (1992) Effect of diet-induced weight loss on total body bone mass. Clin Sci 82:429–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jensen LB, Quaade F, Sorensen OH (1994) Bone loss accompanying voluntary weight loss in obese humans. J Bone Miner Res 9:459–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jensen LB, Kollerup G, Quaade F, Sorensen OH (2001) Bone minerals changes in obese women during a moderate weight loss with and without calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res 16:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pritchard JE, Nowson CA, Wark JD (1996) Bone loss accompanying diet-induced or exercise-induced weight loss: a randomised controlled study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20:513–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ramsdale SJ, Bassey EJ (1994) Changes in bone mineral density associated with dietary-induced loss of body mass in young women. Clin Sci 87:343–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ricci TA, Heymsfield SB, Pierson RN Jr, Stahl T, Chowdhury HA, Shapses SA (2001) Moderate energy restriction increases bone resorption in obese postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 73:347–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Riedt CS, Cifuentes M, Stahl T, Chowdhury HA, Schlussel Y, Shapses SA (2005) Overweight postmenopausal women lose bone with moderate weight reduction and 1 g/day calcium intake. J Bone Miner Res 20:455–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    The Examination Committee of Criteria for “Obesity Disease” in Japan; Japan Society for the Study of Obesity (2002) New criteria for “obesity disease” in Japan. Circ J 66:987–992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson ME, Fiatarone MA, Morganti CM, Trice I, Greenberg RA, Evans WJ (1994) Effects of high-intensity strength training on multiple risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 272:1909–1914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wolff I, van Croonenborg JJ, Kemper HC, Kostense PJ, Twisk JW (1999) The effect of exercise training programs on bone mass: a meta-analysis of published controlled trials in pre-and postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 9:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kerr D, Morton A, Dick I, Prince R (1996) Exercise effects on bone mass in postmenopausal women are site-specific and load-dependent. J Bone Miner Res 11:218–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Daly RM, Dunstan DW, Owen N, Jolley D, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ (2005) Does high-intensity resistance training maintain bone mass during moderate weight loss in older overweight adults with type 2 diabetes? Osteoporos Int 16:1703–1712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Duplay D (2005) Physicians’ Desk Reference for Nonprescription Drugs and Dietary Supplements, 26th edn. Thomson PDR, Montvale, NJGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ (1987) Designing Resistance Training Programs. Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nakata Y, Tanaka K, Mizuki T, Yoshida T (2004) Body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry differ between two analysis modes. J Clin Densitom 7:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crouter SE, Schneider PL, Karabulut M, Bassett DR Jr (2003) Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1455–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Andersen RE, Wadden TA, Herzog RJ (1997) Changes in bone mineral content in obese dieting women. Metabolism 46:857–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shapses SA, Riedt CS (2006) Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: what are the concerns? J Nutr 136:1453–1456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Skov AR, Haulrik N, Toubro S, Molgaard C, Astrup A (2002) Effect of protein intake on bone mineralization during weight loss: a 6-month trial. Obes Res 10:432–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bowen J, Noakes M, Clifton PM (2004) A high dairy protein, high-calcium diet minimizes bone turnover in overweight adults during weight loss. J Nutr 134:568–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ricci TA, Chowdhury HA, Heymsfield SB, Stahl T, Pierson RN Jr, Shapses SA (1998) Calcium supplementation suppresses bone turnover during weight reduction in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 13:1045–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shapses SA, Von Thun NL, Heymsfield SB, Ricci TA, Ospina M, Pierson RN Jr, Stahl T (2001) Bone turnover and density in obese premenopausal women during moderate weight loss and calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res 16:1329–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Madsen OR, Jensen JE, Sorensen OH (1997) Validation of a dual energy X-ray absorptiometer: measurement of bone mass and soft tissue composition. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 75:554–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Svendsen OL, Haarbo J, Hassager C, Christiansen C (1993) Accuracy of measurements of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in vivo. Am J Clin Nutr 57:605–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Svendsen OL, Hendel HW, Gotfredsen A, Pedersen BH, Andersen T (2002) Are soft tissue composition of bone and non-bone pixels in spinal bone mineral measurements by DXA similar? Impact of weight loss. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 22:72–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Japan 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshio Nakata
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kazunori Ohkawara
    • 2
  • Dong Jun Lee
    • 1
    • 3
  • Tomohiro Okura
    • 1
    • 4
  • Kiyoji Tanaka
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport Sciences, Center for Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA)University of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Health Promotion and Exercise ProgramThe National Institute of Health and NutritionTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Division of Physical Education Sport and Leisure StudiesMyongji UniversityYonginKorea
  4. 4.Graduate School of Comprehensive Human SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations