A ship needs to be optimized for cost-effectiveness, operational efficiency, improved safety, comfort of passengers and crew, and for minimum environmental impact. Many of these requirements are contradicting and a decision regarding the optimal ship design needs to be made, based as far as possible on rational criteria and procedures. This is the case for the problem which the SHOPERA project is dealing with. Environmental concern was the reason behind the introduction of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) a few years ago. One way of fulfilling the demanding requirements of the EEDI regulation is to reduce speed of future ships. This may result, however, in under-powered designs, raising questions regarding the ability of these designs to operate safely in adverse weather conditions. The present paper focuses on the development of an optimisation procedure for the design of tankers and bulk carriers, to identify designs with adequate powering to ensure safe operation in adverse weather conditions, while keeping the right balance between economy, efficiency and safety of the ship and the environment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Improvements in operational procedures (e.g. trim optimisation or improved weather routing) can also help to reduce ship emissions, but these are not accounted for in the calculation of EEDI.
UNCTAD Review of Maritime Transport (2016) UNCTAD/RMT/2016, United nations publication. Sales no. E.16.II.D.7, ISBN 978-92-1-112904-5, eISBN: 978-92-1-058462-3, ISSN 0566-7682
Smith TWP, Jalkanen JP, Anderson BA, Corbett JJ, Faber J, Hanayama S, O’Keeffe E, Parker S, Johansson L, Aldous L, Raucci C, Traut M, Ettinger S, Nelissen D, Lee DS, Ng S, Agrawal A, Winebrake JJ, Hoen M, Chesworth S, Pandey A (2015) Third IMO GHG Study 2014, International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, UK
IMO Resolution MEPC.212(63) (2012) Guidelines on the Method of Calculation of the Attained Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for New Ships. International Maritime Organization, The Marine Environment Protection Committee
IMO Resolution MEPC.245(66) (2014) Guidelines on the Method of Calculation of the Attained Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for New Ships. International Maritime Organization, The Marine Environment Protection Committee
IMO MEPC 64/4/13 (2012) Consideration of the Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships—minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability in adverse conditions, submitted by IACS, BIMCO, INTERCARGO, INTERTANKO and OCIMF
IMO MEPC 64/INF.7 (2012) Background Information to Document MEPC 64/4/13, submitted by the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS)
IMO MEPC 62/5/19 (2011) Reduction of GHG emissions from ships—consideration of the Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships. Minimum propulsion power to ensure safe manoeuvring in adverse conditions, submitted by IACS, BIMCO, CESA, INTERCARGO, INTERTANKO, WSC
IMO MEPC 62/INF.21 (2011) Reduction of GHG emissions from ships—consideration of the Energy Efficiency Design Index for new ships. Minimum propulsion power to ensure safe manoeuvring in adverse conditions, submitted by IACS, BIMCO, CESA, INTERCARGO, INTERTANKO, WSC
IMO-MSC 93/21/5 and MSC 93/INF.13 (2014) Safety evaluation of the interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships under adverse weather conditions, submitted by Greece
IMO MEPC 67/4/16 (2014) Comments on documents MSC 93/21/5 and MSC 93/INF.13 and consideration on the requirement of minimum propulsion power needed to maintain manoeuvrability of a ship in adverse conditions, submitted by Denmark, Japan and the Republic of Korea
IMO MEPC 67/INF.14 (2014) EU Project “Energy Efficient Safe SHip OPERAtion” (SHOPERA), submitted by Germany, Norway and the United Kingdom, 2014
IMO MEPC 67/INF.22 (2014) Japanese activity on “Minimum Propulsion to Maintain the Manoeuvrability of Ships in Adverse Conditions”, submitted by Japan
IMO MSC-MEPC.2/Circ.11 (2012) Interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions
IMO Res. MEPC.232(65) (2013) 2013 Interim guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions. MEPC 65/22, Annex 16
IMO MEPC 70/INF.33 (2016) Results of the research project “Energy Efficient Safe Ship Operation” (SHOPERA) Submitted by Denmark, Germany, Norway and Spain
IMO MEPC 70/5/20 (2016) Progress report of SHOPERA and Japan’s projects and outline of draft revised Guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions, submitted by Denmark, Germany and Japan
IMO MEPC 70/INF.30 (2016) Supplementary information on the draft revised Guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions, submitted by Denmark, Germany and Japan
IMO Res. MSC.137(76) (2002) Standards for ship manoeuvrability. MSC 76/23/Add.1
Papanikolaou A, Zaraphonitis G, Bitner-Gregersen E, Shigunov V, Moctar E, Soares OGuedes, Reddy C, Sprenger DN (2015) Energy efficient safe ship operation (SHOPERA). In: Proc. 4th World Maritime Technology Conference (WMTC 2015), Soc. of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME), Providence Rhode Island, 3–7 November 2015
Shigunov V, Papanikolaou A (2014) Criteria for minimum powering and manoeuvrability in adverse weather conditions. In: 14th International Ship Stability Workshop (ISSW 2014), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Shigunov V, Papanikolaou A (2015) Criteria for minimum powering and manoeuvrability in adverse weather conditions. Ship Technol Res Schiffstechnik 62(3):140–147
IMO МЕРС 71/INF.28 (2017) Draft revised guidelines for determining minimum propulsion power to maintain the manoeuvrability of ships in adverse conditions. Paper submitted by Denmark, Germany, Japan, Spain and IACS
Söding H, Shigunov V (2015) Added resistance of ships in waves. Ship Technol Res Schiffstechnik 62(1):2–13
Brix JE (1993) Manoeuvring technical manual. Seehafen Verlag, Hamburg
Zaraphonitis G, Kanellopoulou A, Papanikolaou A, Shigunov V (2016) Ship optimisation for efficiency and manoeuvrability in adverse sea conditions. In: 6th International Maritime Conference on Design for Safety, Germany, Hamburg
NAPA Software, NAPA Oy. https://www.napa.fi/
CAESES Software, Friendship systems. https://www.caeses.com/
Holtrop J (1984) A statistical re-analysis of resistance and propulsion data. Int Shipbuild Prog 31(363):272–276
Resolution A.749(18) (1993) Code on intact stability for all types of ships covered by IMO instruments. International Maritime Organization, Assembly, 18th session, 23 Nov 1993
IMO, International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)
IMO, International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
OECD Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry (2007) Compensated Gross Ton (CGT) System. Council working party on shipbuilding. http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=C/WP6(2006)7&docLanguage=En
Ventikos NP, Koimtzoglou A, Louzis K, Eliopoulou E (2014) Statistics for marine accidents in adverse weather conditions. In: 2nd International Conference on Maritime Technology and Engineering, MARTECH 2014, Lisbon, Portugal, 15–17 October 2014
The work presented in this paper is partly supported by the Collaborative Project SHOPERA (Energy Efficient Safe SHip OPERAtion), Grant agreement number 605221, co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission within the RTD activities of the FP7 Thematic Priority Transport, FP7-SST-2013-RTD-1, Activity 7.2.4 Improving Safety and Security, SST.2013.4-1: Ships in Operation. The European Community and the authors shall not in any way be liable or responsible for the use of any knowledge, information or data of the present paper, or of the consequences thereof. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the European Community.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Kanellopoulou, A., Kytariolou, A., Papanikolaou, A. et al. Parametric ship design and optimisation of cargo vessels for efficiency and safe operation in adverse weather conditions. J Mar Sci Technol 24, 1223–1240 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00773-018-00620-1
- Ship design