Journal of Marine Science and Technology

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 393–405 | Cite as

An overview of systems supplying water into the combustion chamber of diesel engines to decrease the amount of nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas

  • Leszek Chybowski
  • Rafał Laskowski
  • Katarzyna Gawdzińska
Review article


The paper analyses legal requirements for the composition of exhaust gas emitted by ships, marine engines including. The background for this paper is the increasingly stricter limits set for the emission of the toxic exhaust gas components by marine engines. Legal requirements force designers to search for new constructions of marine propulsion systems and constantly improve the existing ones. One of the solutions is supplying water into the combustion chambers of diesel engines—the solution widely known for many years n ow wins favour and, according to the authors, has a chance to gain competitive advantage over alternative constructions. A special attention has been paid to the allowed amount of nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides in exhaust gas resulting from the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships. So far, one, global evaluation of brand new and retrofitted marine propulsion system designs presenting this issue thoroughly has not been done. The authors’ interest in the issue derives from this fact and has been confirmed by many papers. We showed the mechanism of decreasing nitrogen oxides in exhaust gas by means of water supply into the combustion chambers of diesel engines. We presented an overview of designs which might be used to retrofit vessels already in operation or introduced at the stage of vessel construction in the shipyard. The paper also contains an evaluation of the described designs. The following systems have been discussed: continuous water injection into the scavenging air, humid air motor, direct water injection with the use of combined nozzles, water-cooled residual gas system and fuel–water emulsion supply system using emulsifiers or devices of high-pressure water injection into fuel. We have made a comparison of the effectiveness of different methods used to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides. Advantages and disadvantages of supplying water into the combustion chambers of diesel engines have been shown together with the comparison of the range of changes in their construction. The authors have indicated potential opportunities derived from injecting Brown’s gas into the combustion chamber in order to change the composition of the exhaust gas. As a consequence, it will also affect the natural environment where vessels operate.


Fuel–water emulsion NOx emission Continuous water injection Humid air motor Direct water injection Water-cooled residual gas Brown’s gas 



Continuous water injection


Direct water injection


Emission control area


Fuel–water emulsion


Humid air motor


Brown’s gas


International Maritime Organisation

MARPOL 73/78

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships


Marine diesel oil


Marine gas oil


Generic term for nitrogen oxides: NO and NO2


Specific fuel oil consumption


Generic term for sulphur oxides: SO2 and SO3


Water-cooled residual gas



The research presented in this article was carried out under the Grant NCN 2011/01/D/ST8/07827: “Importance analysis of components in reliability structure of complex technical systems illustrated by a marine power plant”.


  1. 1.
    Adamkiewicz A, Kołwzan K (2007) Technologies reducing exhaust gas emissions from large marine diesel engines. Silniki Spalinowe 3:79–90zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Annex VI (2009) (Revised MARPOL ANNEX VI)—Regulations for the prevention of air pollution from ships. Consolidated Edition, 2008. IMO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Burak SR (2010) Improving heavy fuel oil usage by homogenization. Ashland Specialty Chemical Company. Drew Marine Division, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chybowski L (2009). Modern Constructions of Marine Piston Engines. Engine Room Simulator Task Guide (in Polish). Szczecin, pp 18–32Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chybowski L (2012) Qualitative and quantitative multi-criteria models of the importance of the components in reliability structure of a complex technical system. J KONBiN 4(24):33–48Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cleanship (2013) Clean Baltic Sea Shipping. Cleanship Project Final Report. MalmoeGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Giernalczyk M (2006) Konsekwencje Wprowadzenia Aneksu VI Konwencji MARPOL 73/78 w Aspekcie Eksploatacji Siłowni Okrętowych. XXVII Sympozjum Siłowni Okrętowych. Szczecin, pp 245–250Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Enomotoa Y, Naganob H, Hagiharac Y, Koyama T (1997) Thermal load in D.I. diesel engine under EGR operation—measurements of steady state temperature of combustion chamber wall surface and intake gas temperature. JSAE Rev 18(3):225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gronowicz J (2004) Ochrona środowiska w transporcie lądowym. ITE, RadomGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hellen G (1999) Paper carriers to cut NOx emissions by direct water injection. Wärtsila, Marine News 1 pp 8–11Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Humid Air Motor (2011) Technology for green profits. MAN PrimeservGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hulanicki S, Grzywacz S, Stępniak A (1982) Badanie spalania emulsji paliwowo-wodnych w silniku głównym statku m/s Rolnik. Instytut Technicznej Eksploatacji Siłowni Okrętowych. Wyższa Szkoła Morska w SzczecinieGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hussan M, Masjuki J, Hassan H, Kalam MA, Memon L (2013) Tailoring key fuel properties of diesel–biodiesel–ethanol blends for diesel engine. J Clean Prod 07:51Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Janell T (2006) Diesel technology and emissions. Singapore Polytechnic. Singapore Maritime Academy, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kilpinen K (2003) NOx emission formation in marine diesel engines—towards a quantitative understanding. Wärtsila, Marine News 2Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Leelakrishnan E, Lokesh N, Suriyan H (2013) Performance and emission characteristics of Brown’s gas enriched air in spark ignition engine. Int J Innov Res Sci Eng Technol 2(2)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    MAN B&W Diesel A/S. (2004) Emission Control MAN B&W Two-stroke Diesel Engines. Copenhagen, pp 3–21Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo (2011) Emission Control MAN B&W Two-stroke Diesel EnginesGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo (2013) NOx reduction. Helcom conference presentation, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    MAN Diesel and Turbo (2014) Exhaust Gas Emission Control Today and Tomorrow. MAN B&W Two-stroke Marine Diesel EnginesGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    MARPOL 73/78. Consolidated Edition (2011). IMO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Merkisz J, Piaseczny L (2001) Wpływ zasilania emulsją paliwowo-wodną na toksyczność i wskaźniki pracy okrętowego średnioobrotowego silnika spalinowego. J KONES 3–4:294–303Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Piaseczny L, Zadrąg R (2003) Wpływ zasilania emulsją paliwowo-wodną na dymienie silnika spalinowego. J KONES 3–4Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sanjid A, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA, Rahman SM, Abedin MJ, Palash SM (2014) Production of palm and jatropha based biodiesel and investigation of palm-jatropha combined blend properties, performance, exhaust emission and noise in an unmodified diesel engine. J Clean Prod 65:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schmid H, Weisser G (2005) Marine technologies for reduced emissions. Wärtsilä Switzerland Ltd., WinterturGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schnellmann L (2008) Advanced technologies for improved engine efficiencies and lower emissions. Wärtsilä, FFCA East Cost. Internet Site: Accessed 05.11.2014
  28. 28.
    Skupińska J (2014) Utylizacja i neutralizacja odpadów przemysłowych. Katalityczne oczyszczanie gazów odlotowych z tlenków azotu. Internet site: Accessed 06.01.2014
  29. 29.
    Varada S (2014) Performance of diesel engine using HHO gas. Internet site: Accessed 10.01.2014
  30. 30.
    Wärtsilä 46 Technology Review (2008) Wärtsilä Switzerland LtdGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© JASNAOE 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leszek Chybowski
    • 1
  • Rafał Laskowski
    • 2
  • Katarzyna Gawdzińska
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Marine EngineeringMaritime University of SzczecinSzczecinPoland
  2. 2.BP Maritime Services (Singapore) PTE. LimitedSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations