A study on improving the course-keeping ability of a pure car carrier in windy conditions


The course-keeping ability of a pure car carrier (PCC) in windy conditions is discussed in this article. Numerical simulations of two PCCs were carried out to compare their course-keeping abilities in wind. The two PCCs had the same hull form but different types of rudder. One PCC was fitted with a semispade rudder (hereinafter, the normal rudder), whereas the other was fitted with a spade-type Schilling rudder (hereinafter, the Schilling rudder). Both PCCs were designed to a new concept for the accommodation structure and hull form above the load water line. In this new design concept, there are no sharp corners in the superstructure so as to reduce wind resistance and improve steering performance. The limits of course keeping for the two PCCs were investigated through simulations. The course-keeping abilities of the two PCCs, each with two different types of autopilot system, were also investigated in wind. To develop the numerical simulation, the hydrodynamic coefficients of the two PCCs were predicted based on the data published for a third PCC having similar principal particulars. The numerical model of the two PCCs was validated by comparing its behavior with the respective full-scale trial results. Wind resistance coefficients were predicted by combining the results of wind tunnel experiments of the object PCCs and a regression model. Numerical simulations under steady wind conditions were also carried out and the results compared with some full-scale experiments to validate the mathematical model of the PCC.

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Correspondence to Donghoon Kang.

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Hasegawa, K., Kang, D., Sano, M. et al. A study on improving the course-keeping ability of a pure car carrier in windy conditions. J Mar Sci Technol 11, 76–87 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00773-006-0214-9

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Key words

  • PCC
  • Schilling rudder
  • Wind resistance
  • Course-keeping ability
  • Autopilot