Gesunde Ernährung und Mangelernährung bei Krebs

Risiko, Screening und Assessment

Healthy diet and malnutrition in cancer patients

Risk, screening, and assessment

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Von der Prävention bis zur Nachsorge spielt der Ernährungsstatus in allen Stadien einer onkologischen oder hämatologischen Erkrankung eine wesentliche Rolle. Trotzdem ist die Ernährungstherapie noch kein fester Bestandteil der onkologischen Behandlungsmethoden und sollte in allen Therapiephasen berücksichtigt werden.

Methode

Diese Arbeit basiert auf einer selektiven Literaturrecherche in der Datenbank PubMed zum Thema gesunde Ernährung und Nebenwirkungsmanagement unter Krebstherapie sowie Risiko, Screening und Assessment von Mangelernährung bei Krebs.

Ergebnisse

In der Präventionsphase ist es wichtig, ein gesundes Ernährungsverhalten und Körpergewicht anzustreben, um das Risiko eine Tumorerkrankung zu verringern. Während der Antitumorbehandlung liegt der Schwerpunkt der Ernährungstherapie auf der Stabilisierung des Gewichts sowie auf dem Nebenwirkungsmanagement und der Lebensqualität. Dabei sollen alle Ernährungsinterventionen wissenschaftlich basiert und individuell auf die PatientInnen angepasst werden. In der Nachsorgephase ist es wichtig, ein gesundes Ernährungsverhalten, wie es vom World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) empfohlen wird, wiederherzustellen, um insbesondere das Risiko eines Rezidivs zu verringern.

Schlussfolgerung

Der Artikel gibt einen Überblick über die Bedeutung der Ernährungstherapie und die wichtigsten Empfehlungen in einem onkologischen Setting. Die potenzielle Rolle der Ernährungsberatung zur Verbesserung des Outcomes und der Lebensqualität der PatientInnen wird durch die zunehmende und konsistente Evidenz gestützt.

Abstract

Background

From prevention to survivorship, nutritional status plays an integral role in all stages of cancer. Nevertheless, nutrition therapy has yet to become an integral part of oncology treatment regimes and should be considered during all treatment stages.

Methods

This article is based on a selective literature search in the PubMed database on the topics of a healthy diet and management of side effects during cancer treatment as well as risk, screening, and assessment of malnutrition in individuals with cancer.

Results

In the prevention stage phase, both a healthy diet and weight are important to reduce the risk of cancer. However, during treatment, the focus of nutrition therapy shifts and concentrates on maintaining weight, managing side effects, and improving quality of life. It is essential that all nutritional interventions are evidence based and individually tailored to the specific situation. In the survivorship stage phase, it is important to restore healthy eating habits and weight as recommended by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), in particular, to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Conclusion

This article provides an overview of the importance of nutrition therapy and of the most important current recommendations in oncology. The potential role of nutrition counseling in improving patient outcomes and quality of life is supported by growing and consistent evidence.

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Correspondence to J. von Grundherr B.Sc..

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Interessenkonflikt

J. von Grundherr und C. Reudelsterz geben an, dass keine finanziellen oder persönlichen Beziehungen zu Dritten bestehen, deren Interessen von diesem Manuskript positiv oder negativ betroffen sein könnten. C. Reudelsterz hat wissenschaftliche Beraterverträge mit B. Braun und Fresenius GmbH.

Für diesen Beitrag wurden von den Autoren keine Studien an Menschen oder Tieren durchgeführt. Für die aufgeführten Studien gelten die jeweils dort angegebenen ethischen Richtlinien.

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von Grundherr, J., Reudelsterz, C. Gesunde Ernährung und Mangelernährung bei Krebs. Onkologe (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00761-020-00856-w

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Ernährungsstatus
  • Nebenwirkungsmanagement
  • Mangelernährung
  • Gesunde Ernährung
  • Ernährungsberatung

Keywords

  • Nutritional status
  • Side effect mangement
  • Malnutrition
  • Healthy diet
  • Nutritional counseling