This contribution provides an overview of the most important epidemiological key figures for chronic myeloid diseases in Germany, based on data from 12 population-related cancer registers for the years 2005–2015. Projected to the population of Germany for 2018, an annual number of 4700 new cases of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) and 4400 for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) can be expected, together with an additional 1000 cases of mixed forms of MDS/MPN or mastocytosis annually. For most of these diagnoses the median age varied between 70 and 78 years. In the last 10 years, no essential changes in the age-standardized incidence rates were observed. The relative 5‑year survival rates were between 95% for essential thrombocythemia (ET) and 22% for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), while the survival chance was only marginally higher for MDS (36%). Hence, it seems logical that with the implementation of the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), all these diagnoses will be officially viewed as cancerous diseases as the previous distinction between malignant neoplasms (myeloid leukemia) and those of unknown character (e.g. MDS) will be abandoned for these diagnostic groups.