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Sex and gender differences in schizophrenic psychoses—a critical review

  • Anita Riecher-Rössler
  • Surina Butler
  • Jayashri Kulkarni
Original Article

Abstract

Many sex and gender differences in schizophrenic psychoses have been reported, but few have been soundly replicated. A stable finding is the later age of onset in women compared to men. Gender differences in symptomatology, comorbidity, and neurocognition seem to reflect findings in the general population. There is increasing evidence for estrogens being psychoprotective in women and for hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal dysfunction in both sexes.

More methodologically sound, longitudinal, multi-domain, interdisciplinary research investigating both sex (biological) and gender (psychosocial) factors is required to better understand the different pathogenesis and etiologies of schizophrenic psychoses in women and men, thereby leading to better tailored treatments and improved outcomes.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Psychosis Sex Gender Symptoms Risk Course Estrogens Prolactin 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Claudine Pfister, MA, for her help in the preparation of the manuscript.

Funding

This research did not receive any specific grants or funding.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Riecher-Rössler
    • 1
  • Surina Butler
    • 2
  • Jayashri Kulkarni
    • 3
  1. 1.Center of Gender Research and Early DetectionUniversity of Basel Psychiatric HospitalBaselSwitzerland
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health SciencesMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre (MAPrc)MelbourneAustralia

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