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Online-Therapie – eine neue Perspektive in der Psychotherapie für Flüchtlinge und Asylbewerber?

Online-Therapy – a new perspective in psychotherapy with refugees and asylumseekers?

Zusammenfassung

Arabische Flüchtlinge, welche durch Kriege und politische Unruhen aus ihrem Heimatland geflohen sind, waren häufig sequenziellen Traumatisierungen ausgesetzt und zeigten in bisherigen Studien eine hohe Prävalenz von psychischen Störungen. Der Mangel an ausreichender psychotherapeutischer und psychiatrischer Versorgung in der Muttersprache der Flüchtlinge stellt für die Gesundheitssysteme der jeweiligen europäischen Zielländer eine große Herausforderung dar. Qualifizierte arabischsprechende PsychotherapeutInnen oder DolmetscherInnen sind insbesondere in strukturschwachen, ländlichen Regionen häufig nur schwer zu finden. Parallel belegen Forschungsergebnisse, dass die internetbasierte Psychotherapie, insbesondere für die posttraumatische Belastungsstörung und Depression, ähnlich wirksame Behandlungseffekte erzielen kann wie eine traditionelle Sprechzimmertherapie. Die ortsunabhängige Kommunikationsform der neuen Kommunikationstechnologien bieten auch neue Chancen in der psychotherapeutischen Behandlung von Flüchtlingen. Ein virtuelles Behandlungszentrum „Ilajnafsy“ wurde bereits 2006 in arabischer Sprache entwickelt. Die Ergebnisse der online-basierten Behandlung für TraumapatientInnen zeigten eine signifikante Reduzierung der Traumasymptomatik und der Depression. Die neuen Möglichkeiten und Grenzen eines solchen internetbasierten Therapieansatzes im arabischen Kontext werden diskutiert.

Summary

Arabic-speaking refugees who have fled from war and political unrest in their countries of origin have frequently experienced sequential traumatisation. Studies conducted to date have revealed a high prevalence of mental disorders. The lack of adequate psychotherapeutic and psychiatric care in the refugees’ native language confronts the health systems of the European countries to which they flee with a great challenge. Qualified psychotherapists who speak Arabic and qualified interpreters are often difficult to find, particularly in rural regions with poor infrastructures. At the same time research results show that internet-based psychotherapy can lead to similarly effective treatment effects as traditional face-to-face therapy, particularly for post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. The new technologies, which allow communication that is not dependent on location, also offers new opportunities for the psychotherapeutic treatment of refugees. “Ilajnafsy”, an Arabic-language virtual treatment centre, was developed as early as 2006. The results of the online treatment of trauma patients showed a significant reduction of the trauma symptoms and depression. The new potentials and limitations of such an internet-based therapeutic approach for Arabic-speaking clients are discussed.

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Correspondence to Birgit Wagner.

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Diese Arbeit ist Teil des Leitthemas „Aktuelle Entwicklung in der Traumaforschung und -behandlung“.

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Wagner, B. Online-Therapie – eine neue Perspektive in der Psychotherapie für Flüchtlinge und Asylbewerber?. Psychotherapie Forum 21, 124–131 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00729-016-0074-7

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Posttraumatische Belastungsstörung
  • Trauma
  • Internet-Therapie
  • Online-Therapie
  • Flüchtlinge
  • Asylbewerber
  • Psychotherapie
  • Arabisch

Keywords

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Trauma
  • Internet-based intervention
  • Refugees
  • Asylumseeker
  • Psychotherapy
  • Arabic Language