The combination of different nanomaterials has been investigated during the past few decades and represents an exciting challenge for the unexpected emerging properties of the resulting nano-hybrids. Spermidine (Spd), a biogenic polyamine, has emerged as a useful functional monomer for the development of carbon quantum dots (CQDs). Herein, an electrostatically stabilized ternary hybrid, constituted of iron oxide-DNA (the core) and spermidine carbon quantum dots (CQDSpds, the shell), was self-assembled and fully characterized. The as-obtained nano-hybrid was tested on HeLa cells to evaluate its biocompatibility as well as cellular uptake. Most importantly, besides being endowed by the magnetic features of the core, it displayed drastically enhanced fluorescence properties in comparison with parent CQDSpds and it is efficiently internalized by HeLa cells. This novel ternary nano-hybrid with multifaceted properties, ranging from fluorescence to superparamagnetism, represents an interesting option for cell tracking.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Carbon quantum dot
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
Surface active maghemite nanoparticles
Salmon sperm deoxyribonucleic acid
Transmission electron microscopy
Bulte JWM, Arbab AS, Douglas T, Frank JA (2004) Preparation of magnetically labeled cells for cell tracking by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 275–299
Cottin X, Monson PA (1995) Substitutionally ordered solid solutions of hard spheres. J Chem Phys 102:3354–3360. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.469209
Daniel M-C, Astruc D (2004) Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology. Chem Rev 104:293–346. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr030698+
Dhenadhayalan N, Lin K-C (2015) Chemically induced fluorescence switching of carbon-dots and its multiple logic gate implementation. Sci Rep 5:10012
Eldridge MD, Madden PA, Frenkel D (1993a) The stability of the AB 13 crystal in a binary hard sphere system. Mol Phys 79:105–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/00268979300101101
Eldridge MD, Madden PA, Frenkel D (1993b) Entropy-driven formation of a superlattice in a hard-sphere binary mixture. Nature 365:35–37. https://doi.org/10.1038/365035a0
Grunes J, Zhu J, Anderson EA, Somorjai GA (2002) Ethylene hydrogenation over platinum nanoparticle array model catalysts fabricated by electron beam lithography: determination of active metal surface area. J Phys Chem B 106:11463–11468. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp021641e
Hoinville J, Bewick A, Gleeson D et al (2003) High density magnetic recording on protein-derived nanoparticles. J Appl Phys 93:7187–7189. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1555896
Jian H-J, Wu R-S, Lin T-Y et al (2017) Super-cationic carbon quantum dots synthesized from spermidine as an eye drop formulation for topical treatment of bacterial keratitis. ACS Nano 11:6703–6716. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.7b01023
Kalsin AM, Kowalczyk B, Smoukov SK et al (2006) Ionic-like behavior of oppositely charged nanoparticles. J Am Chem Soc 128:15046–15047. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0642966
Kamata K, Lu Y, Xia Y (2003) Synthesis and characterization of monodispersed core–shell spherical colloids with movable cores. J Am Chem Soc 125:2384–2385. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0292849
Kim F, Connor S, Song H et al (2004) Platonic gold nanocrystals. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 43:3673–3677. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200454216
Kittel C (2004) Introduction to solid state physics, 8th edn. Wiley, New York
Li J, He X, Wu Z et al (2003) Piezoelectric immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles with simple immobilization procedures. Anal Chim Acta 481:191–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00089-8
Lim SY, Shen W, Gao Z (2015) Carbon quantum dots and their applications. Chem Soc Rev 44:362–381. https://doi.org/10.1039/c4cs00269e
Lucas IT, Durand-Vidal S, Dubois E et al (2007) Surface charge density of maghemite nanoparticles: role of electrostatics in the proton exchange. J Phys Chem C 111:18568–18576. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp0743119
Magro M, Faralli A, Baratella D et al (2012a) Avidin functionalized maghemite nanoparticles and their application for recombinant human biotinyl-SERCA purification. Langmuir 28:15392–15401. https://doi.org/10.1021/la303148u
Magro M, Nodari L, Russo U, et al (2012b) Maghemite nanoparticles and method for preparing thereof. International Patent Application WO2012/010200 A1; US 8,980, 218 B2
Magro M, Baratella D, Pianca N et al (2013) Electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide production by isolated mitochondria: a novel nanocomposite carbon–maghemite nanoparticle electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 176:315–322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.09.044
Magro M, Campos R, Baratella D et al (2014) A magnetically drivable nanovehicle for curcumin with antioxidant capacity and MRI relaxation properties. Chemistry 20:11913–11920. https://doi.org/10.1002/chem.201402820
Magro M, Baratella D, Jakubec P et al (2015) Triggering mechanism for DNA electrical conductivity: reversible electron transfer between DNA and iron oxide nanoparticles. Adv Funct Mater 25:1822–1831. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201404372
Magro M, Martinello T, Bonaiuto E et al (2017) Covalently bound DNA on naked iron oxide nanoparticles: intelligent colloidal nano-vector for cell transfection. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Sub 1861:2802–2810. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.025
Nogués J, Schuller IK (1999) Exchange bias. J Magn Magn Mater 192:203–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-8853(98)00266-2
Patel VR, Agrawal YK (2011) Nanosuspension: an approach to enhance solubility of drugs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2:81–87. https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-4040.82950
Redl FX, Cho K-S, Murray CB, O’Brien S (2003) Three-dimensional binary superlattices of magnetic nanocrystals and semiconductor quantum dots. Nature 423:968–971. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01702
Reguera J, Petit C, Scarabelli L et al (2015) Self-assembly processes: general discussion. Faraday Discuss 181:299–323. https://doi.org/10.1039/c5fd90043c
Rosi NL, Mirkin CA (2005) Nanostructures in biodiagnostics. Chem Rev 105:1547–1562. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr030067f
Seker F, Malenfant PRL, Larsen M et al (2005) On-demand control of optoelectronic coupling in gold nanoparticle arrays. Adv Mater 17:1941–1945. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200400734
Shevchenko EV, Talapin DV, Kotov NA et al (2006) Structural diversity in binary nanoparticle superlattices. Nature 439:55–59. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04414
Shipway AN, Katz E, Willner I (2000) Nanoparticle arrays on surfaces for electronic, optical, and sensor applications. ChemPhysChem 1:18–52. https://doi.org/10.1002/1439-7641(20000804)1:1%3c18:AID-CPHC18%3e3.0.CO;2-L
Simonson T (2003) Electrostatics and dynamics of proteins. Rep Prog Phys 66:737. https://doi.org/10.1088/0034-4885/66/5/202
Skopalik J, Polakova K, Havrdova M et al (2014) Mesenchymal stromal cell labeling by new uncoated superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles in comparison with commercial Resovist–an initial in vitro study. Int J Nanomedicine 9:5355–5372. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S66986
Soenen SJH, De Cuyper M (2009) Assessing cytotoxicity of (iron oxide-based) nanoparticles: an overview of different methods exemplified with cationic magnetoliposomes. Contrast Media Mol Imaging 4:207–219. https://doi.org/10.1002/cmmi.282
Son DH, Hughes SM, Yin Y, Paul Alivisatos A (2004) Cation exchange reactions in ionic nanocrystals. Science 306:1009–1012. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1103755
Sönnichsen C, Reinhard BM, Liphardt J, Alivisatos AP (2005) A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles. Nat Biotechnol 23:741–745. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1100
Stellacci F (2005) Nanoscale materials: a new season. Nat Mater 4:113–114. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat1316
Stroh A, Zimmer C, Gutzeit C et al (2004) Iron oxide particles for molecular magnetic resonance imaging cause transient oxidative stress in rat macrophages. Free Radic Biol Med 36:976–984. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2004.01.016
Trindade T, O’Brien P, Pickett NL (2001) Nanocrystalline semiconductors: synthesis, properties, and perspectives. Chem Mater 13:3843–3858. https://doi.org/10.1021/cm000843p
Trizac E, Eldridge MD, Madden PA (1997) Stability of the AB crystal for asymmetric binary hard sphere mixtures. Mol Phys 90:675–678. https://doi.org/10.1080/00268979709482651
Tucek J, Zboril R, Petridis D (2006) Maghemite nanoparticles by view of Mössbauer spectroscopy. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 6:926–947
Tucker JR (1992) Complementary digital logic based on the “Coulomb blockade”. J Appl Phys 72:4399–4413. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.352206
Venerando R, Miotto G, Magro M et al (2013) Magnetic nanoparticles with covalently bound self-assembled protein Corona for advanced biomedical applications. J Phys Chem C 117:20320–20331. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp4068137
Williams LD, Maher LJ (2000) Electrostatic mechanisms of DNA deformation. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 29:497–521. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biophys.29.1.497
Xia Y, Gates B, Li Z-Y (2001) Self-assembly approaches to three-dimensional photonic crystals. Adv Mater 13:409–413. https://doi.org/10.1002/1521-4095(200103)13:6%3c409:AID-ADMA409%3e3.0.CO;2-C
Zayats M, Kharitonov AB, Pogorelova SP et al (2003) Probing photoelectrochemical processes in Au-CdS nanoparticle arrays by surface plasmon resonance: application for the detection of acetylcholine esterase inhibitors. J Am Chem Soc 125:16006–16014. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja0379215
Zhang Y, Shen Y, Yuan J et al (2006) Design and synthesis of multifunctional materials based on an ionic-liquid backbone. Angew Chem Int Ed 45:5867–5870. https://doi.org/10.1002/anie.200600120
Zhang Y, Shen Y, Han D et al (2007) Carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase bionanocomposite bridged by ionic liquid-like unit: preparation and electrochemical properties. Biosens Bioelectron 23:438–443. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2007.06.010
The present experimental work was partially funded by Italian Institutional Ministry Grants Cod. DOR1872491. The team members from the Czech Republic were supported by Grant No. LO1204 from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. The authors thank Dr. Jana Stráská for TEM measurements. The authors also thank ‘La Sapienza’ University of Rome and Italian MIUR (Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca). Our gratitude is also due to the “International Polyamine Foundation–ONLUS” for the availability to look up in the Polyamines documentation.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Handling Editor: E. Agostinelli.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
About this article
Cite this article
Venerando, A., Magro, M., Baratella, D. et al. Biotechnological applications of nanostructured hybrids of polyamine carbon quantum dots and iron oxide nanoparticles. Amino Acids 52, 301–311 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-019-02721-6
- Carbon quantum dots
- Cell tracker
- Magnetic nanoparticle