Dietary protein supplementation in the elderly for limiting muscle mass loss
- 1.7k Downloads
Supplementation with whey and other dietary protein, mainly associated with exercise training, has been proposed to be beneficial for the elderly to gain and maintain lean body mass and improve health parameters. The main objective of this review is to examine the evidence provided by the scientific literature indicating benefit from such supplementation and to define the likely best strategy of protein uptake for optimal objectified results in the elderly. Overall, it appears that an intake of approximately 0.4 g protein/kg BW per meal thus representing 1.2–1.6 g protein/kg BW/day may be recommended taking into account potential anabolic resistance. The losses of the skeletal muscle mass contribute to lower the capacity to perform activities in daily living, emphasizing that an optimal protein consumption may represent an important parameter to preserve independence and contribute to health status. However, it is worth noting that the maximal intake of protein with no adverse effect is not known, and that high levels of protein intake is associated with increased transfer of protein to the colon with potential deleterious effects. Thus, it is important to examine in each individual case the benefit that can be expected from supplementation with whey protein, taking into account the usual protein dietary intake.
KeywordsWhey protein High protein diet Anabolic resistance Protein turnover Sarcopenia Aging
Lean body mass
Muscle protein breakdown
Mammalian target of rapamycin
Muscle protein synthesis
Insulin growth factor 1
Protein kinase p70S6
Essential amino acids
Branched-chain amino acids
Fractional synthesis rate
The authors wish to thank the University of Sao Paulo, AgroParisTech, INRA and Université Paris-Saclay for their support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The manuscript has not been submitted to other journal for simultaneous consideration. The manuscript, partly or in full, has not been published previously. No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support our conclusions. No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (plagiarism).
- Daly RM, Connell SL, Mundell NL et al (2014) Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 99:899–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dickinson JM, Drummond MJ, Coben JR et al (2013) Aging differentially affects human skeletal muscle amino acid transporter expression when essential amino acids are ingested after exercise 32(2):273–280Google Scholar
- Fernandes T, Soci UPR, Alves CR et al (2008) Determinantes moleculares da hipertrofia do músculo esquelético mediados pelo treinamento físico: estudo de vias de sinalização. Revista Mackenzie de Educação Física e Esporte 7(1):169–188Google Scholar
- Fujita S, Glynn EL, Timmerman KL et al (2009) Supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia is necessary to stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults: evidence of a true age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism. Diabetologia 52(9):1889–1898PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lancha AH Jr, Pereira-Lancha LO (2012) Nutrição e Metabolismo Aplicados à Atividade Motora. Atheneu, Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
- Liu X, Blouin JM, Santacruz A et al (2014) High-protein diet modifies colonic microbiota and luminal environment but not colonocyte metabolism in the rat model: the increased luminal bulk connection. Am J Physiol 307(4):G459–G470Google Scholar
- Murphy CH, Churchward-Venne TA, Mitchell CJ et al (2015) Hypoenergetic diet-induced reductions in myofibrillar protein synthesis are restored with resistance training and balanced daily protein ingestion in older men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308(9):E734–E743PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Murphy CH, Oikawa SY, Phillips SM et al (2016) Dietary protein to maintain muscle mass in aging: a case for per-meal protein recommendations. J Frailtry Aging 5:49–58Google Scholar
- Riddle ES, Stipanuk MH, Thalacker-Mercer AE (2016) Amino acids in healthy aging. Front Biosci 1:326–350Google Scholar
- Velazquez AMC, Irigoyen CM, Delgadillo VJ et al (2013) The relationship between sarcopenia, undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City. Nutr Hosp 28(2):514–521Google Scholar
- Volpi E, Mittendorfer B, Wolf SE et al (1999) Oral amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly despite higher first-pass splanchnic extraction. Am J Physiol 277(3:1):513–520Google Scholar
- Wolfson RL, Chantranupong L, Saxton RA et al (2016) Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. Amino Acids 351(6268):43–48Google Scholar