Taurine chloramine produced from taurine under inflammation provides anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects
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Taurine is one of the most abundant non-essential amino acid in mammals and has many physiological functions in the nervous, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and immune systems. Upon inflammation, taurine undergoes halogenation in phagocytes and is converted to taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine. In the activated neutrophils, TauCl is produced by reaction with hypochlorite (HOCl) generated by the halide-dependent myeloperoxidase system. TauCl is released from activated neutrophils following their apoptosis and inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators such as, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, and prostaglandins in inflammatory cells at inflammatory tissues. Furthermore, TauCl increases the expressions of antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in macrophages. Thus, a central role of TauCl produced by activated neutrophils is to trigger the resolution of inflammation and protect macrophages and surrounding tissues from being damaged by cytotoxic reactive oxygen metabolites overproduced during inflammation. This is achieved by attenuating further production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites and also by increasing the levels of antioxidant proteins that are able to scavenge and diminish the production of cytotoxic oxygen metabolites. These findings suggest that TauCl released from activated neutrophils may be involved in the recovery processes of cells affected by inflammatory oxidative stresses and thus TauCl could be used as a potential physiological agent to control pathogenic symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases.
KeywordsTaurine Taurine chloramine Neutrophils Inflammation Antioxidant
We thank Dr. Mary C. Dinauer (Washington University, St. Louis) for the gift of PLB-985 and X-PLB cells, Dr. Young-June Kim (Indiana University, Indianapolis) for critical review of the manuscript, and Shuyu Piao (Inha University) for technical assistance. The preparation of this manuscript was supported by a grant from NRF funded by the Korea government MEST (2012R1A1A3007097) and by a research grant from Inha University.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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