Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a neuropeptide with pleiotropic immune functions
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Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino acid neuropeptide/neurotransmitter, is widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous system. VIP is released by both neurons and immune cells. Various cell types, including immune cells, express VIP receptors. VIP has pleiotropic effects as a neurotransmitter, immune regulator, vasodilator and secretagogue. This review is focused on VIP production and effects on immune cells, VIP receptor signaling as related to immune functions, and the involvement of VIP in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The review addresses present clinical use of VIP and future therapeutic directions.
KeywordsVasoactive intestinal peptide Autoimmunity Inflammation Neuroinflammation Neuropeptides/neurotransmitters
This work was supported by the following grants: NIH/NIAID RO1AI47325 (DG) and Spanish Ministry of Health (MD).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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