Vasoactive intestinal peptide: a neuropeptide with pleiotropic immune functions
- 772 Downloads
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino acid neuropeptide/neurotransmitter, is widely distributed in both the central and peripheral nervous system. VIP is released by both neurons and immune cells. Various cell types, including immune cells, express VIP receptors. VIP has pleiotropic effects as a neurotransmitter, immune regulator, vasodilator and secretagogue. This review is focused on VIP production and effects on immune cells, VIP receptor signaling as related to immune functions, and the involvement of VIP in inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The review addresses present clinical use of VIP and future therapeutic directions.
KeywordsVasoactive intestinal peptide Autoimmunity Inflammation Neuroinflammation Neuropeptides/neurotransmitters
This work was supported by the following grants: NIH/NIAID RO1AI47325 (DG) and Spanish Ministry of Health (MD).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bovenschen HJ, van de Kerkhof PC et al (2011) Foxp3+ regulatory T Cells of psoriasis patients easily differentiate into IL-17A-producing cells and are found in lesional skin. J Invest DermatolGoogle Scholar
- Delgado M, Munoz-Elias EJ et al (1998) Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha transcriptional activation by regulating nuclear factor-kB and cAMP response element-binding protein/c-Jun. J Biol Chem 273(47):31427–31436CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dinsmore WW, Gingell C et al (1999) Treating men with predominantly nonpsychogenic erectile dysfunction with intracavernosal vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and phentolamine mesylate in a novel auto-injector system: a multicentre double-blind placebo-controlled study. BJU Int 83(3):274–279CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ganea D, Rodriguez R et al (2003) Vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: players in innate and adaptive immunity. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 49(2):127–142Google Scholar
- Passemard S, El Ghouzzi V et al (2011a) VIP blockade leads to microcephaly in mice via disruption of Mcph1-Chk1 signaling. J Clin InvestGoogle Scholar