Amino Acids

, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 519–529 | Cite as

In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation

  • Bruno Gualano
  • Hamilton Roschel
  • Antonio Herbert Lancha-Jr.
  • Charles E. Brightbill
  • Eric S. Rawson
Invited Review

Abstract

There is an extensive and still growing body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation. In sports, creatine has been recognized as the most effective nutritional supplement in enhancing exercise tolerance, muscle strength and lean body mass. From a clinical perspective, the application of Cr supplementation is indeed exciting. Evidences of benefits from this supplement have been reported in a broad range of diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. In addition, after hundreds of published studies and millions of exposures creatine supplementation maintains an excellent safety profile. Thus, we contend that the widespread application of this supplement may benefit athletes, elderly people and various patient populations. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize both the ergogenic and therapeutic effects of Cr supplementation. Furthermore, we reviewed the impact of Cr supplementation on kidney function.

Keywords

Nutritional supplements Exercise performance Sports Chronic diseases 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Gualano
    • 1
  • Hamilton Roschel
    • 1
  • Antonio Herbert Lancha-Jr.
    • 1
  • Charles E. Brightbill
    • 2
  • Eric S. Rawson
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Physical Education and SportUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Exercise ScienceBloomsburg UniversityBloomsburgUSA

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