Synergic effect of α-tocopherol and naringenin in transglutaminase-induced differentiation of human prostate cancer cells
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Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover novel, less toxic, and more effective therapies for patients. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin E, (tocopherols) have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed that this vitamin may have anticancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be intensively studied. This review provides up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of tocopherols on prostate cancer development, along with our last observations on a combined treatment of a prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) with two natural antineoplastic compounds, naringenin (NG) and α-tocopherol (α-TOC). We report the synergic effect of α-TOC and NG in transglutaminase-induced differentiation of human PC-3 prostate cancer cells. While our results are based on one histological class of tumor, the most significant implication of this observation is that establishes a new way in the screening for detecting new differentiative antineoplastic agents.
Keywordsα-Tocopherol Naringenin Transglutaminase Differentiation Apoptosis Human PC-3 prostate cancer cell
We thanks Prof. Salvatore Passarella for assistance and helpful discussion.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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