Skip to main content

Stress response and changes in amino acid requirements in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858)

Summary.

Fish in aquaculture are often exposed to various stressors that may change their ability to survive or limit growth. Amino acids are used for processes other than growth, including stress response. This study intended to analyse how repeated acute handling stress can affect growth and amino acid requirements in fish. Senegalese sole juveniles were weekly held in the air during 3 min (Handling) for 9 weeks; Control groups were left undisturbed. Growth and plasma levels of stress indicators and of free amino acids were assessed at the end of the experiment. Plasma cortisol and osmolality levels showed that fish in the Handling treatment were stressed, but growth was unaffected. Plasma amino acid concentrations indicate that their requirements in stressed fish were altered, which probably reflects the synthesis of proteins or other specific compounds related to stress response.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • MS Alam S Teshima S Koshio M Ishikawa (2002) ArticleTitleArginine requirement of juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus estimated by growth and biochemical parameters Aquaculture 205 127–140 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0044-8486(01)00670-6 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XovFehuw%3D%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • C Aragão LEC Conceição J Dias AC Marques E Gomes MT Dinis (2003) ArticleTitleSoy protein concentrate as a protein source for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858) diets: effects on growth and amino acid metabolism of postlarvae Aquacult Res 34 1443–1452 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1365-2109.2003.00971.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • RJ Arends JM Mancera JL Muñoz SE Wendelaar Bonga G Flik (1999) ArticleTitleThe stress response of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) to air exposure and confinement J Endocrinol 163 149–157 Occurrence Handle10495417 Occurrence Handle10.1677/joe.0.1630149 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXms1Ogu7Y%3D

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • BA Barton CB Schreck LD Barton (1987) ArticleTitleEffects of chronic cortisol administration and daily acute stress on growth, physiological conditions, and stress response in juvenile rainbow trout Dis Aquat Org 2 173–185 Occurrence Handle10.3354/dao002173 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2sXlvFGgtrw%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen SA, Meys M, Tarvin TL (1989) The pico-tag method – a manual of advanced techniques for amino acid analysis. Waters, Bedford

  • A Dosdat F Servais R Métailler C Huelvan E Desbruyères (1996) ArticleTitleComparison of nitrogen losses in five teleost fish species Aquaculture 141 107–127 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0044-8486(95)01209-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DJ Farrell PF Mannion RA Perez-Maldonado (1999) ArticleTitleA comparison of total and digestible amino acids in diets for broilers and layers Anim Feed Sci Technol 82 131–142 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0377-8401(99)00080-2 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXntlegurc%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • P Fürst P Stehle (2004) ArticleTitleWhat are the essential elements needed for the determination of amino acid requirements in humans? J Nutr 134 1558S–1565S Occurrence Handle15173430

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • K Imura A Okada (1998) ArticleTitleAmino acid metabolism in pediatric patients Nutrition 14 143–148 Occurrence Handle9437700 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0899-9007(97)00230-X Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1c7gtVemtg%3D%3D

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • S Jentoft AH Aastveit PA Torjesen Ø Andersen (2005) ArticleTitleEffects of stress on growth, cortisol and glucose levels in non-domesticated Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and domesticated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Comp Biochem Physiol A 141 353–358 Occurrence Handle10.1016/j.cbpb.2005.06.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • E Kulczykowska (2001) ArticleTitleResponses of circulating arginine vasotocin, isotocin, and melatonin to osmotic and disturbance stress in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Fish Physiol Biochem 24 201–206 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1014079917644 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XitFClsr8%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • SP Lall SJ Kaushik PY Lebail R Keith JS Anderson E Plisetskaya (1994) ArticleTitleQuantitative arginine requirement of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in seawater Aquaculture 124 13–25 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0044-8486(94)90350-6 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXhtlGqu7k%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • ET Larson S Winberg I Mayer O Lepage CH Summers Ø Øverli (2004) ArticleTitleSocial stress affects circulating melatonin levels in rainbow trout Gen Comp Endocrinol 136 322–327 Occurrence Handle15081831 Occurrence Handle10.1016/j.ygcen.2004.01.005 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXjtVegsb8%3D

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • SD McCormick JM Shrimpton JB Carey MF O’Dea KE Sloan S Moriyama BT Björnsson (1998) ArticleTitleRepeated acute stress reduces growth rate of Atlantic salmon parr and alters plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol Aquaculture 168 221–235 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00351-2 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXntVyms7w%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • CL Milligan (1997) ArticleTitleThe role of cortisol in amino acid mobilization and metabolism following exhaustive exercise in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) Fish Physiol Biochem 16 1119–1128 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00004669

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • TP Mommsen MM Vijayan TW Moon (1999) ArticleTitleCortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation Rev Fish Biol Fish 9 211–268 Occurrence Handle10.1023/A:1008924418720

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • AE Morales G Cardenete E Abellán L García-Rejón (2005) ArticleTitleStress-related physiological responses to handling in common dentex (Dentex dentex Linnaeus, 1758) Aquacult Res 36 33–40 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1365-2109.2004.01180.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • C Obled I Papet D Breuillé (2002) ArticleTitleMetabolic bases of amino acid requirements in acute diseases Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 5 189–197 Occurrence Handle11844987 Occurrence Handle10.1097/00075197-200203000-00012 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XitVKmsrg%3D

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • SE Papoutsoglou H Milliou S Chadio N Karakatsouli A Zarkada (1999) ArticleTitleStudies on stress responses and recovery from removal in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (L.) using recirculating seawater system Aquacult Eng 21 19–32 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0144-8609(99)00021-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • AD Pickering (1998) Stress responses of farmed fish K Black A Pickering (Eds) Biology of farmed fish Sheffield Academic Press Sheffield 222–382

    Google Scholar 

  • PJ Reeds F Jahoor (2001) ArticleTitleThe amino acid requirements of disease Clin Nutr 20 15–22 Occurrence Handle10.1054/clnu.2001.0402 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXmtVyrtb4%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • J Rotllant NM Ruane MT Dinis AVM Canário DM Power (2006) ArticleTitleIntra-adrenal interactions in fish: catecholamine stimulated cortisol release in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) Comp Biochem Physiol A 143 375–381 Occurrence Handle10.1016/j.cbpa.2005.12.027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • WB Roush TL Cravener (2002) ArticleTitleStochastic true digestible amino acid values Anim Feed Sci Technol 102 225–239 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0377-8401(02)00249-3 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XovFGnu7c%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • L Simmons RD Moccia DP Bureau JG Sivak K Herbert (1999) ArticleTitleDietary methionine requirement of juvenile Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) Aquacult Nutr 5 93–100 Occurrence Handle10.1046/j.1365-2095.1999.00097.x Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXkt1ClsL8%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • MJ Strieker JG Morris QR Rogers (2006) ArticleTitleIncreasing dietary crude protein does not increase the essential amino acid requirements of kittens J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 90 344–353 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1439-0396.2006.00609.x Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD28XosFequrY%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • TP Taylor JG Morris PH Kass QR Rogers (1997) ArticleTitleIncreasing dispensable amino acids in diets of kittens fed essential amino acids at or below their requirement increases the requirement for arginine Amino Acids 13 257–272 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF01372591 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXmvV2ksA%3D%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • E Tibaldi F Tulli (1999) ArticleTitleDietary threonine requirement of juvenile european sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Aquaculture 175 155–166 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00029-0 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXivVSltL4%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • S Varsamos G Flik JF Pepin SE Wendelaar Bonga G Breuil (2006) ArticleTitleHusbandry stress during early life stages affects the stress response and health status of juvenile sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax Fish Shellfish Immunol 20 83–96 Occurrence Handle15961320 Occurrence Handle10.1016/j.fsi.2005.04.005 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2MXmt1Wjs78%3D

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • BE Verbeteen CG Carter GJ Purser (1999) ArticleTitleThe combined effect of feeding time and ration on growth performance and nitrogen metabolism of greenback flounder J Fish Biol 55 1328–1343 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1095-8649.1999.tb02079.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MM Vijayan C Pereira E Gordon Grau GK Iwama (1997) ArticleTitleMetabolic response associated with confinement stress in tilapia: the role of cortisol Comp Biochem Physiol C 116 89–95 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0300-9629(96)00156-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • PJ Walsh TP Mommsen (2001) Evolutionary considerations of nitrogen metabolism and excretion PA Wright AJ Anderson (Eds) Nitrogen excretion SeriesTitleFish physiology NumberInSeries20 Academic Press San Diego 1–30 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S1546-5098(01)20002-8

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • CP Waring RM Stagg MG Poxton (1992) ArticleTitleThe effects of handling on flounder (Platichthys flesus L.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) J Fish Biol 41 131–144 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1095-8649.1992.tb03176.x Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK38XmtV2htbw%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • CP Waring RM Stagg MG Poxton (1996) ArticleTitlePhysiological responses to handling in the turbot J Fish Biol 48 161–173 Occurrence Handle10.1111/j.1095-8649.1996.tb01110.x Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK28Xis1Ohtrs%3D

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • RP Wilson (1994) Amino acid requirements of finfish JPF D’Mello (Eds) Amino acids in farm animal nutrition CAB International Wallingford 377–399

    Google Scholar 

  • RP Wilson (2002) Amino acids and proteins JE Halver RW Hardy (Eds) Fish nutrition Elsevier Science San Diego 144–179

    Google Scholar 

  • G Wu SM Morris SuffixJr (1998) ArticleTitleArginine metabolism: nitric oxide and beyond Biochem J 336 1–17 Occurrence Handle9806879 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXotVGltrs%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Aragão.

Additional information

Authors’ address: C. Aragão, CCMAR, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Aragão, C., Corte-Real, J., Costas, B. et al. Stress response and changes in amino acid requirements in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858). Amino Acids 34, 143–148 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-007-0495-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-007-0495-2

  • Keywords: Handling stress – Cortisol – Osmolality – Amino acids – Requirements – Solea senegalensis