Skip to main content
Log in

Dietary γ-aminobutyric acid affects the brain protein synthesis rate in young rats

  • Published:
Amino Acids Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Summary.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects the rate of brain protein synthesis in male rats. Two experiments were done on five or three groups of young rats (5 wk) given the diets containing 20% casein administrated 0 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg or 200 mg/100 g body weight GABA dissolved in saline by oral gavage for 1 day (d) (Experiment 1), and given the diets contained 0%, 0.25% or 0.5% GABA added to the 20% casein diet (Experiment 2) for 10 d. The plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) was the highest in rats administrated 50 mg and 100 mg/100 g body weight GABA. The concentration of serum GABA increased significantly with the supplementation groups. The fractional (Ks) rates of protein synthesis in brain regions, liver and gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly with the 20% casein + 0.25% GABA diet and still more 20% casein + 0.5% GABA compared with the 20% casein diet. In brain regions, liver and gastrocnemius muscle, the RNA activity [g protein synthesized/(g RNA·d)] significantly correlated with the fractional rate of protein synthesis. The RNA concentration (mg RNA/g protein) was not related to the fractional rate of protein synthesis in any organ. Our results suggest that the treatment of GABA to young male rats are likely to increase the concentrations of plasma GH and the rate of protein synthesis in the brain, and that RNA activity is at least partly related to the fractional rate of brain protein synthesis.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

GABA:

γ-aminobutyric acid

GH:

growth hormone

d:

days

References

  • InstitutionalAuthorNameAmerican Institute of Nutrition (1993) ArticleTitleAIN purified diets for laboratory rodents: final Report of the American Institute of Nutrition Ad Hoc Writing Committee on the reformulation of the AIN 76A rodent diet J Nutr 123 1939–1951

    Google Scholar 

  • JC Anthony T Gautsch Anthony SR Kimball TC Vary LS Jefferson (2000a) ArticleTitleOrally administered leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats in association with increased eIF 4F formation J Nutr 130 139–145 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXhtVSmsbY%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • JC Anthony F Yoshizawa T Gautsch Anthony TC Vary LS Jefferson SR Kimball (2000b) ArticleTitleLeucine stimulates translation in skeletal muscle of postabsorptive rats via a rapamycin-sensitive pathway J Nutr 130 2413–2419 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3cXntVShtb0%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • D Attaix E Aurosseau G Bayle D Rosolowska-Huszcz M Arnal (1988) ArticleTitleRespective influences of age and weaning on skeletal and visceral muscle protein synthesis in the lamb Biochem J 256 791–795 Occurrence Handle3223952 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL1MXltF2r

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • JL Beverly SuffixIII DW Gietzen QR Rogers (1991) ArticleTitleProtein synthesis in the prepyriform cortex: effects on intake of an amino acid-imbalanced diet by Sprague-Dawley rats J Nutr 121 754–761 Occurrence Handle2019884 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK3MXit1Ortr4%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • L Bianchi L Della Corte KF Tipton (1999) ArticleTitleSimultaneous determination of basal and evoked output levels of aspartate, glutamate, taurine and 4-aminobutyric acid during microdialysis and from superfused brain slices J Chromatogr 723 47–59 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXhs1Ogsbs%3D

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • JB Deijen H de Boer EA van der Veen (1998) ArticleTitleCognitive changes during growth hormone replacement in adult men Psychoneuroendocrinology 23 45–55 Occurrence Handle9618751 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0306-4530(97)00092-9 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXjslGrtrY%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • DB Duncan (1955) ArticleTitleMultiple range and multiple F tests Biometrics 11 1–42 Occurrence Handle10.2307/3001478

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • KE Flaim WSL Liao DE Peavy JM Taylor LS Jefferson (1982) ArticleTitleThe role of amino acids in the regulation of protein synthesis in perfused liver. II. Effects of amino acid deficiency of peptide chain initiation, polysomal aggregation, and distribution of albumin mRNA J Biol Chem 257 2939–2946 Occurrence Handle7061457 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL38XhsF2qs7s%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • A Fleck HN Munro (1962) ArticleTitleThe precision of ultraviolet absorption measurements in the Schmidt-Thannhauser procedure for nucleic acid estimation Biochim Biophys Acta 55 571–583 Occurrence Handle13893456 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0006-3002(62)90836-3 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaF38XktlOnt7o%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • PJ Garlick MA McNurlan VR Preedy (1980) ArticleTitleA rapid and convenient technique for measuring the rate of protein synthesis in tissues by injection of [3H]phenylalanine Biochem J 192 719–723 Occurrence Handle6786283 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL3MXmtFSjsg%3D%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • J Gibney JD Wallace T Spinks L Schnorr A Ranicar RC Cuneo S Lockhart KG Burnand F Salomon PH Sonksen D Russel-Jones (1999) ArticleTitleThe effects of 10 years of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) in adult GH-deficient patients J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84 2596–2602 Occurrence Handle10443645 Occurrence Handle10.1210/jc.84.8.2596 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXltFCls7g%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • DF Goldspink FJ Kelly (1984) ArticleTitleProtein turnover and growth in the whole body, liver and kidney of the rat from the foetus to senility Biochem J 217 507–516 Occurrence Handle6199020 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXhtVSmurc%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • DF Goldspink SEM Lewis FJ Kelly (1984) ArticleTitleProtein synthesis during the developmental growth of the small and large intestine of the rat Biochem J 217 527–534 Occurrence Handle6199022 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXhtVSmu78%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • K Hayase M Koie H Yokogoshi (1998) ArticleTitleThe quantity of dietary protein affects brain protein synthesis rate in aged rats J Nutr 128 1533–1536 Occurrence Handle9732315 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1cXlvVWgtbg%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • K Hayase Y Naganuma M Moriyama A Yoshida H Yokogoshi (1997) ArticleTitleEffect of a thyroid hormone treatment on brain protein synthesis in rats Biosci Biotech Biochem 61 1536–1540 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2sXmsFehsb0%3D Occurrence Handle10.1271/bbb.61.1536

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • K Hayase M Tanaka K Tujioka E Hirano O Habuchi H Yokogoshi (2001) ArticleTitle17-β-Estradiol affects brain protein synthesis rate in ovariectomized female rats J Nutr 131 123–126 Occurrence Handle11208948 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD3MXotVKksQ%3D%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • K Hayase H Yokogoshi (1994) ArticleTitleAge affects brain protein synthesis in rats J Nutr 124 683–688 Occurrence Handle7513350 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2cXivFCrtLg%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • K Hayase H Yokogoshi (1995) ArticleTitleInsulin treatment affects brain protein synthesis rate in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats J Nutr 125 2768–2772 Occurrence Handle7472656 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK2MXptVWrurY%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • H Kato (2002) Molecular biology of protein metabolism J Kakinuma (Eds) Molecular nutrition Koseikan Tokyo 50–64

    Google Scholar 

  • M Koie M Tanaka K Hayase A Yoshida H Yokogoshi (1999) ArticleTitleEffect of dietary protein quality on the brain protein synthesis rate in aged rats J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 45 481–489 Occurrence Handle10575638 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK1MXmtFGlt7k%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • EA Kravitz PB Molinoff ZW Hall (1965) ArticleTitleA comparison of the enzymes and substrates of gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolism in lobster excitatory and inhibitory axons Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 54 778–782 Occurrence Handle5217457 Occurrence Handle10.1073/pnas.54.3.778 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaF28Xlsl2g

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • M Le Greves P Steensland P Le Greves F Nyberg (2002) ArticleTitleGrowth hormone induces age-dependent alteration in the expression of hippocampal growth hormone receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits gene transcripts in male rats Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99 7119–7123 Occurrence Handle12011468 Occurrence Handle10.1073/pnas.092135399 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38XjvFCqur8%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • SEM Lewis FJ Kelly DF Goldspink (1984) ArticleTitlePre- and post-natal growth and protein turnover in smooth muscle heart and slow- and fast-swich skeletal muscles of the rat Biochem J 217 517–526 Occurrence Handle6199021 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL2cXhtVSmu74%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • OH Lowry NJ Rosebrough AL Farr RJ Randall (1951) ArticleTitleProtein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent J Biol Chem 193 265–275 Occurrence Handle14907713 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaG38XhsVyrsw%3D%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • S Lyou K Tujioka E Hirano Y Mawatari K Hayase S Okuyama H Yokogoshi (2004) ArticleTitleEffect of adding dietary methionine to a low soy protein diet on the brain protein synthesis rate in ovariectomized female rats Nutr Neurosci 7 185–190 Occurrence Handle15526993 Occurrence Handle10.1080/10284150412331279818 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD2cXps12jsLY%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • S Lyou H Yokogoshi (2004) Hormones and brain function H Yokogoshi (Eds) Brain function and nutrition Saiwaishobo Tokyo 359–372

    Google Scholar 

  • DJ Millward PJ Garlick DO Nnanyelugo JC Waterlow (1976) ArticleTitleThe relative importance of muscle protein synthesis and breakdown in the regulation of muscle mass Biochem J 156 185–188 Occurrence Handle133677 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaE28XksVCgtr4%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • D Mitsushima T-T-W Shwe T Funabashi K Shinohara F Kimura (2002) ArticleTitleGABA release in the medial preoptic area of cyclic female rats Neuroscience 113 109–114 Occurrence Handle12123689 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00160-4 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DC%2BD38Xlt1Oiur0%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • M Otsuka EA Kravitz DD Potter (1966) ArticleTitlePhysiological and chemical architecture of a lobster ganglion with particular reference to gamma-aminobutyrate and glutamate J Neurophysiol 30 725–752

    Google Scholar 

  • DK Reinstein RI Isaacson AJ Dunn (1979) ArticleTitleRegional change in 2-deoxyglucose uptake after neocortical and hippocampal destruction Brain Res 175 392–397 Occurrence Handle487167 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0006-8993(79)91023-0 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaL3c%2Fit1Wguw%3D%3D

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • E Roberts S Frankel (1950) ArticleTitleγ- Aminobutyric acid in brain: its formation glutamic acid J Biol Chem 187 55–63 Occurrence Handle14794689 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaG3MXhvFKjsw%3D%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • GW Snedecor WG Cochran (1967) Statistical methods EditionNumber6 Iowa State University Press Ames, IA

    Google Scholar 

  • RA Symmons EJ Maquire QR Rogers (1972) ArticleTitleEffect of dietary protein and feeding schedule on hepatic polysome pattern in the rat J Nutr 102 639–646 Occurrence Handle5022198 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaE38Xktlehsbo%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • JC Waterlow PJ Garlick DJ Millward (1978) Protein turnover in mammalian tissues and in the whole body North-Holland Amsterdam 529–594

    Google Scholar 

  • H Yokogoshi K Hayase A Yoshida (1992) ArticleTitleThe quality and quantity of dietary protein affect brain protein synthesis in rats J Nutr 122 2210–2217 Occurrence Handle1279144 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaK38XmsFSnsbk%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • H Yokogoshi Y Sakuma A Yoshida (1980) ArticleTitleEffect of dietary protein quality and quantity on hepatic polyribosome profiles in rats J Nutr 110 1347–1353 Occurrence Handle7381598 Occurrence Handle1:CAS:528:DyaL3cXltFaksr4%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • F Yoshizawa SR Kimball TC Vary LS Jefferson (1998) ArticleTitleEffect of dietary protein on translation initiation in rat skeletal muscle and liver Am J Physiol 275 E814–E820 Occurrence Handle9815001 Occurrence Handle1:STN:280:DyaK1M%2Fjt1KjtQ%3D%3D

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Tujioka, K., Okuyama, S., Yokogoshi, H. et al. Dietary γ-aminobutyric acid affects the brain protein synthesis rate in young rats. Amino Acids 32, 255–260 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-006-0358-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-006-0358-2

Navigation