Applied Magnetic Resonance

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 349–355 | Cite as

Gadolinium-Loaded Viral Capsids as Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents

  • Robert J. Usselman
  • Shefah Qazi
  • Priyanka Aggarwal
  • Sandra S. Eaton
  • Gareth R. Eaton
  • Stephen Russek
  • Trevor Douglas
Article

Abstract

Polymeric nanohybrid P22 virus capsids were used as templates for high density Gd3+ loading to explore magnetic field-dependent (0.5–7.0 T) proton relaxivity. The field-dependence of relaxivity by the spatially constrained Gd3+ in the capsids was similar when either the loading of the capsids or the concentration of capsids was varied. The ionic longitudinal relaxivity, r1, decreased from 25–32 mM−1 s−1 at 0.5 T to 6–10 mM−1 s−1 at 7 T. The ionic transverse relaxivity, r2, increased from 28–37 mM−1 s−1 at 0.5 T to 39–50 mM−1 s−1 at 7 T. The r2/r1 ratio increased linearly with increasing magnetic field from about 1 at 0.5 T, which is typical of T1 contrast agents, to 5–8 at 7 T, which is approaching the ratios for T2 contrast agents. Increases in electron paramagnetic resonance line widths at 80 and 150 K and higher microwave powers required for signal saturation indicate enhanced Gd3+ electron spin relaxation rates for the Gd3+-loaded capsids than for low concentration Gd3+. The largest r2/r1 at 7 T was for the highest cage loading, which suggests that Gd3+–Gd3+ interactions within the capsid enhance r2 more than r1.

Supplementary material

723_2014_639_MOESM1_ESM.docx (794 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 793 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. Usselman
    • 1
  • Shefah Qazi
    • 2
  • Priyanka Aggarwal
    • 3
  • Sandra S. Eaton
    • 3
  • Gareth R. Eaton
    • 3
  • Stephen Russek
    • 1
  • Trevor Douglas
    • 4
  1. 1.Electromagnetics DivisionNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of DenverDenverUSA
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryIndiana UniversityBloomingtonUSA

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