Mineralogy and Petrology

, Volume 110, Issue 2–3, pp 295–307 | Cite as

Origin of Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of Wajrakarur field kimberlites, southern India: insights from EPMA and Raman spectroscopy

  • Ashish N. DongreEmail author
  • K. S. Viljoen
  • N. V. Chalapathi Rao
  • A. Gucsik
Original Paper


Although Ti-rich garnets are commonly encountered in the groundmass of many alkaline igneous rocks, they are comparatively rare in kimberlites. Here we report on the occurrence of Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of the P-15 and KL-3 kimberlites from the diamondiferous Wajrakarur field in the Eastern Dharwar craton of southern India. These garnets contain considerable Ti (11.7–23.9 wt.% TiO2), Ca (31.3–35.8 wt.% CaO), Fe (6.8–15.5 wt.% FeOT) and Cr (0.04–9.7 wt.% Cr2O3), but have low Al (0.2–5.7 wt.% Al2O3). In the case of the P-15 kimberlite they display a range in compositions from andradite to schorlomite, with a low proportion of grossular (andradite(17.7–49.9)schorlomite(34.6–49.5)-grossular(3.7–22.8)-pyrope(1.9–10.4)). A few grains also contain significant chromium and represent a solid solution between schorlomite and uvarovite. The Ti-rich garnets in the KL-3 kimberlite, in contrast, are mostly schorlomitic (54.9─90.9 mol %) in composition. The Ti-rich garnets in the groundmass of these two kimberlites are intimately associated with chromian spinels, perhaps suggesting that the garnet formed through the replacement of spinel. From the textural evidence, it appears unlikely that the garnets could have originated through secondary alteration, but rather seem to have formed through a process in which early magmatic spinels have reacted with late circulating, residual fluids in the final stages of crystallization of the kimberlite magma. Raman spectroscopy provides evidence for low crystallinity in the spinels which is likely to be a result of their partial transformation into andradite during their reaction with a late-stage magmatic (kimberlitic) fluid. The close chemical association of these Ti-rich garnets in TiO2-FeO-CaO space with those reported from ultramafic lamprophyres (UML) is also consistent with results predicted by experimental studies, and possibly implies a genetic link between kimberlite and UML magmas. The occurrence of Ti-rich garnets of similar composition in the Swartruggens orangeite on the Kaapvaal craton in South Africa, as well as in other kimberlites with an orangeitic affinity (e.g. the P-15 kimberlite on the Eastern Dharwar craton in southern India), is inferred to be a reflection of the high Ca- and high Ti-, and the low Al-nature, of the parent magma (i.e. Group II kimberlites).


Olivine Dharwar Craton Kaapvaal Craton Eastern Dharwar Craton Metasomatic Fluid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was supported with funding provided to K.S. Viljoen by the South African Department of Science and Technology through their Research Chairs initiative (Geometallurgy), as administered by the National Research Foundation. In addition, the Centre of Excellence for Integrated Mineral and Energy Resource Analysis (CIMERA) at the University of Johannesburg is thanked for general funding, relating to this, and other projects. We thank Christian Reinke of the University of Johannesburg Central Analytical Facility for his assistance with the electron microprobe analyses. A. Dongre would like to thank Sebastian Tappe and Tapabrato Sarkar for their helpful discussions that ensued during the course of this study. N.V. Chalapathi Rao would like to thank DST-SERB New Delhi and Head, Department of Geology, BHU for support. We thank the reviewers, A.L. Jaques and an anonymous reviewer, as well as the guest editor, Peter Downes, for their efforts at improving the paper.

Supplementary material

710_2016_428_MOESM1_ESM.doc (152 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 169 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashish N. Dongre
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. S. Viljoen
    • 1
  • N. V. Chalapathi Rao
    • 2
  • A. Gucsik
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of JohannesburgAuckland ParkSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Geology, Center of Advanced StudyBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

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