Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Pollen wall development in Impatiens glandulifera: exine substructure and underlying mechanisms

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Protoplasma Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate in detail the pollen wall ontogeny in Impatiens glandulifera, with emphasis on the substructure and the underlying mechanisms of development. Sporopollenin-containing pollen wall, the exine, consists of two parts, ectexine and endexine. By determining the sequence of developing substructures with TEM, we have in mind to understand in which way the exine substructure is connected with function. We have shown earlier that physical processes of self-assembly and phase separation are universally involved in ectexine development; currently, we try to clear up whether these processes participate in endexine development. The data received were compared with those on other species. The ectexine ontogeny of I. glandulifera followed the main stages observed in many other species, including the late tetrad stage named “Golden gates”. It turned out that the same physico-chemical processes act in endexine development, especially expressed in aperture sites. Another peculiar phenomenon observed in exine development was the recurrency of micellar sequence at near-aperture and aperture sites where the periplasmic space is widened. It should be noted that, in the whole, the developmental substructures observed during the tetrad and early post-tetrad period are similar in species with columellate exines. Evidently, these basic physical processes proceed, reiterating again and again in different species, resulting in an enormous variety of exine structures on the base of a relatively modest number of genes. Granular and alveolar exines emerge on the base of the same basic processes but are arrested at spherical and cylindrical micelle mesophases correspondingly.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

All relevant data are included in this manuscript and its supporting information is acceptable if this is the case.

References

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was carried out in the framework of the institutional research project of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences ‘Pollen and spores of living and fossil plants: morphology and development’ no. AAAA-A19-119080790048-7 on the equipment of the Core Facility “Cellular and Molecular Technologies in Plant Science” of the Komarov Botanical Institute (St. Petersburg).

Funding

Institutional research project of the Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

VVG: collecting and fixation of C. miralis material and preparing of ultrathin sections, fixations and embedding of models’ samples and preparing ultrathin sections, staining of all sections; DAB: taking TEM pictures; NIG: the principal analysis and writing the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nina I. Gabarayeva.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Handling Editor: Alexander Schulz

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gabarayeva, N.I., Britski, D.A. & Grigorjeva, V.V. Pollen wall development in Impatiens glandulifera: exine substructure and underlying mechanisms. Protoplasma 261, 111–124 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-023-01887-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-023-01887-x

Keywords

Navigation