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The auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.): Genome-wide identification and their expression profiling under abiotic stresses

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Abstract

Auxin response factors (ARFs) play vital role in controlling growth and developmental processes of plants via regulating the auxin signaling pathways. However, the identification and functional roles of ARFs in oil palm plants remain elusive. Here, we identified a total of 23 ARF (EgARF) genes in oil palm through a genome-wide identification approach. The EgARF gene structure analysis revealed the presence of intron-rich ARF gene family in genome of oil palm. Further analysis demonstrated the uneven distribution of 23EgARFs on 16 chromosomes of oil palm. Phylogenetic analysis clustered all the EgARFs into four groups. Twenty-one EgARFs contained BDD, ARF, and CTD domains, whereas EgARF5 and EgARF7 lacked the CTD domain. The evolution of ARF genes in oil palm genome has been expanded by segmental duplication events. The cis-acting regulatory elements of EgARF gene family were predominantly associated with the stress and hormone responses. Expression profiling data demonstrated the constitutive and tissue-specific expression of EgARF genes in various tissues of oil palm. Real-time PCR analysis of 19 EgARF genes expression levels under cold, drought, and salt stress conditions proved their prominent role under abiotic stress responses. Altogether, our study provides a basis for studying the molecular and functional roles of ARF genes in oil palm.

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Abbreviations

ARF:

Auxin response factor;

DBD:

DNA-binding domain;

AuxREs:

Auxin-responsive elements

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Data and materials availability

All data and materials used in this research are publicly available. Other supporting data are provided as supplementary files with the manuscript.

Funding

This research work is financially supported by central public-interest scientific institution basal research fund for the Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (Project No. 1630152019002).

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Contributions

LJ and HC conceived and designed the experiments. LJ and RY performed the experiments; LJ, RY, and LZ validated the data; LJ, RY, and LZ performed the formal analysis; RY participated in original draft preparation; LJ supervised the research.

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Correspondence to Longfei Jin.

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Key message

A set of 23 ARF transcription factors were identified and analyzed their expression in response to various abiotic stresses

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Jin, L., Yarra, R., Zhou, L. et al. The auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.): Genome-wide identification and their expression profiling under abiotic stresses. Protoplasma 259, 47–60 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-021-01639-9

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