, Volume 255, Issue 4, pp 1147–1160 | Cite as

Enhanced expression of ginsenoside biosynthetic genes and in vitro ginsenoside production in elicited Panax sikkimensis (Ban) cell suspensions

  • Tanya Biswas
  • Shiv Shanker Pandey
  • Deepamala Maji
  • Vikrant Gupta
  • Alok Kalra
  • Manju Singh
  • Archana Mathur
  • A. K. Mathur
Original Article


Dual metabolite, i.e., ginsenoside and anthocyanin, co-accumulating cell suspensions of Panax sikkimensis were subjected to elicitation with culture filtrates of Serratia marcescens (SD 21), Bacillus subtilis (FL11), Trichoderma atroviridae (TA), and T. harzianum (TH) at 1.25% and 2.5% v/v for 1- and 3-week duration. The fungal-derived elicitors (TA and TH) did not significantly affect biomass accumulation; however, bacterial elicitors (SD 21 and FL11), especially SD 21, led to comparable loss in biomass growth. In terms of ginsenoside content, differential responses were observed. A maximum of 3.2-fold increase (222.2 mg/L) in total ginsenoside content was observed with the use of 2.5% v/v TH culture filtrate for 1 week. Similar ginsenoside accumulation was observed with the use of 1-week treatment with 2.5% v/v SD 21 culture filtrate (189.3 mg/L) with a 10-fold increase in intracellular Rg2 biosynthesis (31 mg/L). Real-time PCR analysis of key ginsenoside biosynthesis genes, i.e., FPS, SQS, DDS, PPDS, and PPTS, revealed prominent upregulation of particularly PPTS expression (20–23-fold), accounting for the observed enhancement in protopanaxatriol ginsenosides. However, none of the elicitors led to successful enhancement in in vitro anthocyanin accumulation as compared to control values.


Panax sikkimensis Cell suspension Ginsenoside Trichoderma Elicitation 



The authors are grateful to the Director, CSIR-CIMAP, for the infrastructure and the lab facilities provided for the studies. TB also acknowledges the award of a Senior Research Fellowship (SRF) granted by the University Grants Commission, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical compliance

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya Biswas
    • 1
  • Shiv Shanker Pandey
    • 2
  • Deepamala Maji
    • 2
  • Vikrant Gupta
    • 1
  • Alok Kalra
    • 2
  • Manju Singh
    • 3
  • Archana Mathur
    • 1
  • A. K. Mathur
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Biotechnology Division, Council of Scientific & Industrial ResearchCentral Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants PO CIMAPLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Microbiology and Entomology Division, Council of Scientific & Industrial ResearchCentral Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants PO CIMAPLucknowIndia
  3. 3.Analytical Chemistry Division, Council of Scientific & Industrial ResearchCentral Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants PO CIMAPLucknowIndia

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