Advertisement

Protoplasma

, Volume 255, Issue 3, pp 819–828 | Cite as

Effect of mercury on pollen germination and tube growth in Lilium longiflorum

  • Thomas Sawidis
  • Gülriz Baycu
  • Gül Cevahir–Öz
  • Elzbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska
Original Article

Abstract

Pollen development and germination were adversely affected by the presence of mercury, whereas low-concentrations stimulated the whole procedure. Mercury caused morphological anomalies during the tube growth, characterized by irregularly increasing diameters and swelling tips. The main effect was the anomalous cell wall formation at the tip where a substantial number of organelles were found reducing the secretory vesicles. The dense organelle concentration caused a significant reduction of cytoplasmic movement integrity, and the cytosol streaming was gradually reduced or stopped completely. Electron dense, multilamellar myelin-like structures (MMS) of membranous material were frequently present, in close contact with plasmalemma or away from it. A loose network of fibrillar material and spherical aggregates mostly at the tip region were observed which progressively were loosened into the surrounding medium. Elevated mercury concentrations can affect plant reproduction, resulting in anomalies in gamete development and consequently loss of plant biodiversity.

Keywords

Lilium Mercury Pollen Germination Pollen tube growth Ultrastructure 

References

  1. Breygina M, Matveyeva N, Polevova S, Meychik N, Nikolaeva Y, Mamaeva A, Yermakov I (2012) Ni2+ effects on Nicotiana tabacum L. pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Biometals 25(6):1221–1233.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-012-9584-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Cox RM (1988) The sensitivity of pollen from various coniferous and broad-leaved trees to combinations of acidity and trace metals. New Phytol 109(2):193–201.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1988.tb03708.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dafni A (2000) A new procedure to assess pollen viability. Sex Plant Reprod 12:241–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fusconi A, Gallo C, Camusso W (2007) Effects of cadmium on root apical meristems of Pisum sativum L.: cell viability, cell proliferation and microtubule pattern as suitable markers for assessment of stress pollution. Mutat Res 15:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fernández MC, Pérez-Gutierrez MA, Suarez-Santiago VN, Salinas- Bonillo MJ, Romero-García AT (2013) Multilamellar bodies linked to two active plasmalemma regions in the pollen grains of Sarcocapnos pulcherrima. Biol Plant 57(2):298–304.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-012-0295-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gur N, Topdemir A (2005) Effects of heavy metals (Cd++, Cu++, Pb++, Hg++) on pollen germination and tube growth of Qince (Cydonia oblonga M.) and plum (Prunus domestica L.) Fres Environ Bull 14:36–39Google Scholar
  7. Gur N, Topdemir A (2008) Effects of some heavy metals on in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of apricot (Armenica vulgaris Lam.) and cherry (Cerasus avium L.) World Appl Sci J 4:195–198Google Scholar
  8. Holmes P, Hames KAF, Levy LS (2009) Is low-level mercury exposure of concern to human health? Sci Total Environ 408(2):171–182.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.043 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kristen U, Hoppe U, Pape W (1993) The pollen tube growth test: a new alternative to the Draize eye irritation assay. J Soc Cosmet Chem 44:153–162Google Scholar
  10. Noguchi T (1990) Consumption of lipid granules and formation of vacuoles in the pollen tube of Tradescantia reflexa. Protoplasma 156(1-2):19–28.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01666502 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Obermeyer G, Blatt MR (1995) Electrical properties of intact pollen grains of Lilium longiflorum. Characteristics of the non-germination grain. J Exp Bot 46(7):803–813.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/46.7.803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pacini E, Jacquard E, Clement C (2011) Pollen vacuoles and their importance. Planta 234(2):217–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00425-011-1462-4 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Pfahler PL (1981) In vitro germination characteristics of maise pollen to detect biological activity of environmental pollutants. Environ Health Perspect 37:125–132.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8137125 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Polevova S, Breygina M, Matveyeya N, Yermakov I (2014) Periplasmic multilamellar membranous structures in Nicotiana tabacum L. pollen grains treated with Ni2+ or Cu2+. Protoplasma 251:1521–1525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Rao KS, Kristen U (1990) The influence of the detergent triton X-100 on the growth and ultrastructure of tobacco pollen tubes. Can J Bot 68(5):1131–1138.  https://doi.org/10.1139/b90-143 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Roederer G, Reiss H-D (1988) Different effects of inorganic and triethyl lead on growth and ultrasructure of lily pollen tubes. Protoplasma 144(2-3):101–109.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01637242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sarkar BA (2005) Mercury in the environment: effects on health and reproduction. Rev Environ Health 20:39–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Sawidis T, Reiss H-R (1995) Effects of heavy metals on pollen tube growth and ultrastructure. Protoplasma 185(3-4):113–122.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01272851 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sawidis T (1997) Accumulation and effects of heavy metals in Lilium pollen. Acta Hort 437:153–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sawidis T (2008) Effect of cadmium on pollen germination and tube growth in Lilium longiflorum and Nicotiana tabacum. Protoplasma 233(1-2):95–106.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-008-0306-y CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Searcy KB, Mulcahy DL (1985) The parallel expression of metal tolerance in pollen and sporophytes of Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., S. alba(mill.) and Mimulus guttatus DC. Theor Appl Genet 69:597–602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Serregin I, Kozhevnikova D (2009) Transport and distribution of nickel in higher plants. In: Barket A, Hayat S, Ahmad A (eds) Nickel in relation to plants. Narosa Publ. House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, pp 11–32Google Scholar
  23. Speranza A, Ferri P, Battistelli M, Falcieri E, Crinelli R, Scoccianti V (2007) Both trivalent and hexavalent chromium strongly alter in vitro germination and ultrastructure of kiwifruit pollen. Chemosphere 66(7):1165–1174.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.08.019 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Stebbing ARD (1998) A theory for growth hormesis. Mutat Res 403(1-2):249–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0027-5107(98)00014-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Tchounwou PB, Ayensu WK, Ninashvilli N, Sutton D (2003) Environmental exposures to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health. Environ Toxicol 18(3):149–175.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.10116 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Tiwari SC, Polito VS, Webster BD (1990) In dry pear (Pyrus communis L.) pollen, membranes assume a tightly packed multilamellate aspect that disappears rapidly upon hydration. Protoplasma 153(3):157–168.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01354000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Turner AP, Dickinson NM, Lepp NW (1991) Indices of metal tolerance in trees. Water Air Soil Pollut 57–58:617–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Verchot-Lubicz J, Goldstein RE (2010) Cytoplasmic streaming enables the distribution of molecules and vesicles in large plant cells. Protoplasma 240(1-4):99–107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-009-0088-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Xiong ZT, Peng YH (2001) Response of pollen germination and tube growth to cadmium with special reference to low concentration exposure. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 48(1):51–52.  https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.2000.2002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Botany DivisionIstanbul UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of Life Sciences in LublinLublinPoland

Personalised recommendations