Protoplasma

, Volume 255, Issue 3, pp 785–802 | Cite as

Salinity reduces 2,4-D efficacy in Echinochloa crusgalli by affecting redox balance, nutrient acquisition, and hormonal regulation

  • Faisal Islam
  • Yuan Xie
  • Muhammad A. Farooq
  • Jian Wang
  • Chong Yang
  • Rafaqat A. Gill
  • Jinwen Zhu
  • Weijun Zhou
Original Article

Abstract

Distinct salinity levels have been reported to enhance plants tolerance to different types of stresses. The aim of this research is to assess the interaction of saline stress and the use of 2,4-D as a means of controlling the growth of Echinochloa crusgalli. The resultant effect of such interaction is vital for a sustainable approach of weed management and food production. The results showed that 2,4-D alone treatment reduces the chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic capacity, enhanced MDA, electrolyte leakage, and ROS production (H2O2, O2 ·−) and inhibited the activities of ROS scavenging enzymes. Further analysis of the ultrastructure of chloroplasts indicated that 2,4-D induced severe damage to the ultrastructure of chloroplasts and thylakoids. Severe saline stress (8 dS m−1) followed by mild saline stress treatments (4 dS m−1) also reduced the E. crusgalli growth, but had the least impact as compared to the 2,4-D alone treatment. Surprisingly, under combined treatments (salinity + 2,4-D), the phytotoxic effect of 2,4-D was reduced on saline-stressed E. crusgalli plants, especially under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This stimulated growth of E. crusgalli is related to the higher activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and dynamic regulation of IAA, ABA under mild saline + 2,4-D treatment. This shows that 2,4-D efficacy was affected by salinity in a stress intensity-dependent manner, which may result in the need for greater herbicide application rates, additional application times, or more weed control operations required for controlling salt-affected weed.

Keywords

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid Abscisic acid Indole acetic acid Salinity ROS Antioxidants 

Abbreviations

ABA

Abscisic acid

ACC

1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid

APX

Ascorbate peroxidase

CAT

Catalase

CW

Cell wall

DAB

Diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride

IAA

Indole acetic acid

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

MDA

Malondialdehyde

MIT

Mitochondria

NBT

Nitro blue tetrazolium

O2·−

Superoxide

PER

Peroxisome

PG

Plastoglobuli

POD

Peroxidase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SG

Starch grain

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBA

Thiobarbituric acid

TCA

Trichloroacetic acid

TPC

Phenolic content

EL

Electrolyte leakage

GSSG

Oxidize glutathione content

GSH

Reduced glutathione;

2,4-D

2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faisal Islam
    • 1
  • Yuan Xie
    • 1
  • Muhammad A. Farooq
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jian Wang
    • 1
  • Chong Yang
    • 1
  • Rafaqat A. Gill
    • 1
  • Jinwen Zhu
    • 3
  • Weijun Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Crop Science and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Crop GermplasmZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of Pure and Applied BiologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Institute of Pesticide and Environmental Toxicology and Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and InsectsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

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