Partial repair of salinity-induced damage to sprouting sugarcane buds by proline and glycinebetaine pretreatment

Abstract

Sugarcane shows reduced crop stand under relatively suboptimal conditions; the main reason for this is its sensitivity to ionic stress in the soil solution. This research was performed to explore some physiological and developmental changes in the immature sugarcane buds submitted to salt stress and possible role of glycinebetaine (GB) and proline (Pro) in mitigating the ion toxicity in a time course manner. Salinity stress reduced fresh and dry weight, induced the generation of hydrogen peroxide, increased tissue levels of Na+ sand Cl, reduced K+ and Ca2+, and K+:Na+ and Ca2+:Na+ ratios, while increasing the osmolyte synthesis in expanding sugarcane buds. Salinity stress reduced and delayed the formation of new bud leaves and their expansion, which was mainly because of reduction in the number and area of mesophyll cells and poor development of vascular bundles. The pretreatment of bud chips with 20 mM each of GB and Pro decreased tissue levels of Na+ and Cl, reduced the generation of H2O2, improved K+ and Ca2+, K+:Na+ and Ca2+:Na+ ratios, and further increased the levels of GB, free proline (FP), and soluble sugars in the buds. The pretreatment increased mesophyll cell number and expansion of bud leaves and formation of elaborated vascular tissues, which apparently enabled the sprouting buds to adapt to salinity stress. Of the two osmolytes, GB was a relatively better inducer of salinity tolerance than Pro. In short, salinity-induced oxidative stress was the main cause for altered tissue development, the production of which was offset by pretreatment of bud tissues with Pro and GB.

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Abbreviations

MC:

Mesophyll cells

VB:

Vascular bundles

EL:

Elongating bud leaves

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Acknowledgments

The financial support of the Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad, Pakistan, under Indigenous Ph.D. Fellowship Program (5000 fellowships) Batch-II to first author is highly acclaimed. Prof. Ahrar Khan, Department of Pathology, is highly thanked for providing the microtome facility. This work is part of PhD thesis of the first author.

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Correspondence to Abdul Wahid.

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Handling Editor: Néstor Carrillo

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Rasheed, R., Wahid, A., Hussain, I. et al. Partial repair of salinity-induced damage to sprouting sugarcane buds by proline and glycinebetaine pretreatment. Protoplasma 253, 803–813 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-015-0841-2

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Keywords

  • Osmoprotection
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pretreatment
  • Tissue expansion
  • Ionic toxicity