Endoplasmic reticulum-targeted GFP reveals ER remodeling in Mesorhizobium-treated Lotus japonicus root hairs during root hair curling and infection thread formation
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the model legume Lotus japonicus was visualized using green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the KDEL sequence to investigate the changes in the root hair cortical ER in the presence or absence of Mesorhizobium loti using live fluorescence imaging. Uninoculated root hairs displayed dynamic forms of ER, ranging from a highly condensed form to an open reticulum. In the presence of M. loti, a highly dynamic condensed form of the ER linked with the nucleus was found in deformed, curled, and infected root hairs, similar to that in uninoculated and inoculated growing zone I and II root hairs. An open reticulum was primarily found in mature inoculated zone III root hairs, similar to that found in inactive deformed/curled root hairs and infected root hairs with aborted infection threads. Co-imaging of GFP-labeled ER with light transmission demonstrated a correlation between the mobility of the ER and other organelles and the directionality of the cytoplasmic streaming in root hairs in the early stages of infection thread formation and growth. ER remodeling in root hair cells is discussed in terms of possible biological significance during root hair growth, deformation/curling, and infection in the Mesorhizobium–L. japonicus symbiosis.
KeywordsCortical endoplasmic reticulum Rhizobia Green fluorescent protein Cytoplasmic streaming Root hairs
Green fluorescent protein
This work was supported by a Postdoctoral Fellowship (ID no. P05458) for Foreign Researchers from the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science to F.M. P-W.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest.
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