Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of membranous components from the highly malignant T24 urinary carcinoma cell line to the non-malignant RT4 urinary papilloma cell line


This communication reports the first experimental evidence that in the bladder cancer model, membranous components labelled with the DiO dye and the cholera toxin subunit B can be transported from highly malignant (T24) to non-malignant (RT4) cells by extracellular vesicles. Taking into account the presence of stable membranous nanostructures found by scanning electron microscopy, we suggest a possible uptake mechanism in recipient cells through fusion with highly curved membranous regions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3


  1. Dahiya R, Boyle B, Goldberg BC, Yoon WH, Konety B, Chen K, Yen TS, Blumenfeld W, Narayan P (1992) Metastasis-associated alterations in phospholipids and fatty acids of human prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. Biochem Cell Biol 70:548–554

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. D’Asti E, Garnier D, Lee TH, Montermini L, Meehan B, Rak J (2012) Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumor progression. Front Physiol 3:294

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Frey B, Gaipl US (2011) The immune functions of phosphatidylserine in membranes of dying cells and microvesicles. Semin Immunopathol 33:497–516

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Kharaziha P, Ceder S, Li Q, Panaretakis T (2012) Tumor cell-derived exosomes: a message in a bottle. Biochim Biophys Acta 1826:103–111

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Kim CW, Lee HM, Lee TH, Kang C, Kleinman HK, Gho YS (2002) Extracellular membrane vesicles from tumor cells promote angiogenesis via sphingomyelin. Cancer Res 62:6312–6317

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Kralj-Iglič V (2012) Stability of membranous nanostructures: a possible key mechanism in cancer progression. Int J Nanomed 7:3579–3596

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Mrówczyńska L, Salzer U, Iglič A, Hägerstrand H (2011) Curvature factor and membrane solubilisation, with particular reference to membrane rafts. Cell Biol Int 35:991–995

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Patra SK (2008) Dissecting lipid raft facilitated cell signaling pathways in cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1785:182–206

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Simpson RJ, Jensen SS, Lim JW (2008) Proteomic profiling of exosomes: current perspectives. Proteomics 8:4083–4099

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Skočaj M, Bakrac B, Križaj I, Maček P, Anderluh G, Sepčič K (2013) The sensing of membrane microdomains based on pore-forming toxins. Curr Med Chem 20:491–501

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Van Blitterswijk WJ, De Veer G, Krol JH, Emmelot P (1982) Comparative lipid analysis of purified plasma membranes and shed extracellular membrane vesicles from normal murine thymocytes and leukemic GRSL cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 688:495–504

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Veranič P, Lokar M, Schutz GJ, Weghuber J, Wieser S, Hagerstrand H, Kralj-Iglič V, Iglič A (2008) Different types of cell-to-cell connections mediated by nanotubular structures. Biophys J 95:4416–4425

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Veronika Kralj-Iglič.

Additional information

Handling Editor: Peter Nick

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ogorevc, E., Hudoklin, S., Veranič, P. et al. Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of membranous components from the highly malignant T24 urinary carcinoma cell line to the non-malignant RT4 urinary papilloma cell line. Protoplasma 251, 699–702 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-013-0544-5

Download citation


  • Intercellular transfer
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Exosomes
  • Microvesicles
  • DiO
  • Cholera toxin