Universal rules for division plane selection in plants
- 438 Downloads
Coordinated cell divisions and cell expansion are the key processes that command growth in all organisms. The orientation of cell divisions and the direction of cell expansion are critical for normal development. Symmetric divisions contribute to proliferation and growth, while asymmetric divisions initiate pattern formation and differentiation. In plants these processes are of particular importance since their cells are encased in cellulosic walls that determine their shape and lock their position within tissues and organs. Several recent studies have analyzed the relationship between cell shape and patterns of symmetric cell division in diverse organisms and employed biophysical and mathematical considerations to develop computer simulations that have allowed accurate prediction of cell division patterns. From these studies, a picture emerges that diverse biological systems follow simple universal rules of geometry to select their division planes and that the microtubule cytoskeleton takes a major part in sensing the geometric information and translates this information into a specific division outcome. In plant cells, the division plane is selected before mitosis, and spatial information of the division plane is preserved throughout division by the presence of reference molecules at a distinct region of the plasma membrane, the cortical division zone. The recruitment of these division zone markers occurs multiple times by several mechanisms, suggesting that the cortical division zone is a highly dynamic region.
KeywordsCell division Division plane orientation Cytoskeleton Microtubules Actin filaments Phragmoplast Preprophase band Cell shape
Microtubule organizing center
Microtubule associated proteins
Mitogen activated protein kinase
Post-translational tubulin modifications
Nuclear envelope breakdown
Work in this field of research in my laboratory is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Project MU 3133/1-1).
Conflict of interest
The author declares to have no conflict of interest.
- Cleary AL, Gunning BES, Wasteneys GO, Hepler PK (1992) Microtubule and F-actin dynamics at the division site in living tradescantia stamen hair-cells. J Cell Sci 103:977–988Google Scholar
- Errera L (1888) Über Zellformen und Seifeblasen. Bot Centralbl 34:395–398Google Scholar
- Goodbody KC, Venverloo CJ, Lloyd CW (1991) Laser microsurgery demonstrates that cytoplasmic strands anchoring the nucleus across the vacuole of premitotic plant cells are under tension. Implications for division plane alignment. Development 113:931–939Google Scholar
- Hertwig O (1884) Das Problem der Befruchtung und der Isotropie des Eies, eine Theorie der Vererbung (Jenaische Zeitschrift der Naturwissenschaften)Google Scholar
- Lloyd CW, Traas JA (1988) The role of F-actin in determining the division plane of carrot suspension cells—drug studies. Development 102:211–221Google Scholar
- Mineyuki Y (1999) The preprophase band of microtubules: its function as a cytokinetic apparatus in higher plants. In: Kwang WJ (ed) International review of cytology, vol 187. Academic Press, Burlington, pp 1–49Google Scholar
- Mineyuki Y, Gunning BES (1990) A role for preprophase bands of microtubules in maturation of new cell-walls, and a general proposal on the function of preprophase band sites in cell-division in higher-plants. J Cell Sci 97:527–537Google Scholar
- Müller J, Beck M, Mettbach U, Komis G, Hause G, Menzel D, Samaj J (2010) Arabidopsis MPK6 is involved in cell division plane control during early root development, and localizes to the pre-prophase band, phragmoplast, trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane. Plant J 61:234–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sakai T, Honing HVD, Nishioka M, Uehara Y, Takahashi M, Fujisawa N, Saji K, Seki M, Shinozaki K, Jones MA, Smirnoff N, Okada K, Wasteneys GO (2008) Armadillo repeat-containing kinesins and a NIMA-related kinase are required for epidermal-cell morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J 53:157–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Leene J, Stals H, Eeckhout D, Persiau G, Van De Slijke E, Van Isterdael G, De Clercq A, Bonnet E, Laukens K, Remmerie N, Henderickx K, De Vijlder T, Abdelkrim A, Pharazyn A, Van Onckelen H, Inzé D, Witters E, De Jaeger G (2007) A tandem affinity purification-based technology platform to study the cell cycle interactome in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Cell Proteomics 6:1226–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Weingartner M, Criqui MC, Meszaros T, Binarova P, Schmit AC, Helfer A, Derevier A, Erhardt M, Bogre L, Genschik P (2004) Expression of a nondegradable cyclin B1 affects plant development and leads to endomitosis by inhibiting the formation of a phragmoplast. Plant Cell 16:643–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar